University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

What are we measuring with the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire? Exploratory factor analysis across four samples from two countries

Panjeh, Sareh, Pompeia, Sabine, Archer, Simon, Pedrazzoli, Mario, von Schantz, Malcolm and Cogo-Moreira, Hugo (2020) What are we measuring with the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire? Exploratory factor analysis across four samples from two countries Chronobiology International.

[img] Text
What are we measuring - AAM.pdf - Accepted version Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (945kB)


Individual variability in diurnal preference or chronotype is commonly assessed with selfreport scales such as the widely used Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). We sought to investigate the MEQ’s internal consistency by applying exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the number of underlying latent factors in four different adult samples, two each from the United Kingdom and Brazil (total N=3,457). We focused on factors that were apparent in all samples, irrespective of particular sociocultural diversity and geographical characteristics, so as to show a common core reproducible structure across samples. Results showed a three-factor solution with acceptable to good model fit indexes in all studied populations. Twelve of the 19 MEQ items in the three-correlated factor solution loaded onto the same factors across the four samples. This shows that the scale measures three distinguishable, yet correlated constructs: 1) items related to how people feel in the morning, which we termed efficiency of dissipation of sleep pressure (recovery process) (items 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, and 19); 2) items related to how people feel before sleep, which we called sensitivity to build-up of sleep pressure (items 2, 10, and 12); and 3) peak time of cognitive arousal (item 11). Although the third factor was not regarded as consistent since only one item was common among all samples, it might represent subjective amplitude. These results suggested that the latent constructs of the MEQ reflect dissociable homeostatic processes in addition to a less consistent propensity for cognitive arousal at different times of the day. By analysing answers to MEQ items that compose these latent factors, it may be possible to extract further knowledge of factors that affect morningness-eveningness.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Biosciences and Medicine
Authors :
Panjeh, Sareh
Pompeia, Sabine
Pedrazzoli, Mario
von Schantz,
Cogo-Moreira, Hugo
Date : 2020
Funders : Wellcome Trust
Uncontrolled Keywords : Chronotype; Circadian rhythms; Diurnal preference; Factor analysis; Sleep homeostasis
Related URLs :
Additional Information : 12 month embargo. (Not yet published, as of 03/09/20.) Pending embargo. Metadata Pending.
Depositing User : James Marshall
Date Deposited : 24 Aug 2020 14:29
Last Modified : 07 Sep 2020 08:32

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800