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Is the Motor Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) a Co-Occurring Deficit or a Phenotypic Characteristic?

Farran, Emily, Bowler, Aislinn, D'Souza, Hana, Mayall, Leighanne, Karmiloff-Smith, Annette, Sumner, Emma, Brady, Daniel and Hill, Elizabeth L. (2020) Is the Motor Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) a Co-Occurring Deficit or a Phenotypic Characteristic? Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

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Objectives Motor difficulties are often reported in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aims of this study are to detail themotor profile of childrenwith ADHD and to determine whether themotor impairment present in a large proportion of children with ADHD represents a phenotypic characteristic of ADHD or a co-occurring deficit. Methods Participants with ADHD (N = 51; age 8 to 15 years) and typically developing (TD) motor matched control children (N = 75; age 4 to 11 years) completed the largest battery of assessments of motor function that have been used with this population to date, as well as a measure of inhibition as a behavioural measure of ADHD characteristics. Parents/caregivers also completed questionnaires relating to ADHD symptomology and a retrospective report of their child’s motor milestone achievement. Results A motor deficit was observed in 47% of our ADHD sample. Few relationships were observed between ADHD core characteristics and motor competence. Furthermore, there was an uneven profile of motor performance across different motor tasks, relative to the TD children. Interestingly, it appears that motor milestone achievement is not delayed in ADHD. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the motor deficit observed in ADHD is not inherent to ADHD. The motor deficit observed in some children with ADHD does not represent a simple delay in development and is not observed in infancy with respect to reaching motor milestones.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Psychology
Authors :
Bowler, Aislinn
D'Souza, Hana
Mayall, Leighanne
Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
Sumner, Emma
Hill, Elizabeth L.
Date : 4 June 2020
Funders : The Waterloo Foundation, ESRC
DOI : 10.1007/s41252-020-00159-6
Grant Title : The Waterloo Foundation Grant
Copyright Disclaimer : This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder . Motor development . Motormilestones
Depositing User : James Marshall
Date Deposited : 05 Jun 2020 08:38
Last Modified : 05 Jun 2020 08:38

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