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On the Optimal Speed Profile for Electric Vehicles

So, Philip, Gruber, Patrick, Tavernini, Davide, Karci, Ahu Ece Hartavi, Sorniotti, Aldo and Motaln, Tomaz (2020) On the Optimal Speed Profile for Electric Vehicles IEEE Access, 8. pp. 78504-78518.

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The main question in eco-driving is – what speed or torque profile should the vehicle follow to minimize its energy consumption over a certain distance within a desired trip time? Various techniques to obtain globally optimal energy-efficient driving profiles have been proposed in the literature, involving optimization algorithms such as dynamic programming (DP) or sequential quadratic programming. However, these methods are difficult to implement on real vehicles due to their significant computational requirements and the need for precise a-priori knowledge of the scenario ahead. Although many predictions state that electric vehicles (EVs) represent the future of mobility, the literature lacks a realistic analysis of optimal driving profiles for EVs. This paper attempts to address the gap by providing optimal solutions obtained from DP for a variety of trip times, which are compared with simple intuitive speed profiles. For a case study EV, the results show that the DP solutions involve forms of Pulse-and-Glide (PnG) at high frequency. Hence, detailed investigations are performed to: i) prove the optimality conditions of PnG for EVs; ii) show its practical use, based on realistic electric powertrain efficiency maps; iii) propose rules for lower frequency PnG operation; and iv) use PnG to track generic speed profiles.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering Sciences
Authors :
Karci, Ahu Ece Hartavi
Motaln, Tomaz
Date : 24 March 2020
Funders : European Union's Horizon 2020
DOI : 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2982930
Grant Title : STEVE Project: Smart-Tailored L-Category Electric Vehicle Demonstration in Heterogeneous Urban Use Cases
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2020 IEEE. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see
Uncontrolled Keywords : Dynamic programming; Eco-driving; Electric vehicles; Speed profile; Optimization; Pulse-and-glide; Acceleration; Mechanical power transmission; Torque; Ice; Traction motors; Energy consumption
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 04 Jun 2020 20:10
Last Modified : 20 Aug 2020 12:28

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