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Determinants of commuter exposure to PM2.5 and CO during long-haul journeys on national highways in India

Kolluru, Soma Sekhara Rao, Patra, Aditya Kumar and Kumar, Prashant (2019) Determinants of commuter exposure to PM2.5 and CO during long-haul journeys on national highways in India Atmospheric Pollution Research, 10 (4). pp 1031-1041.

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National Highways (NH) are the major road networks linking cities but exposure studies during long commutes on highways are limited. We assessed exposure concentrations of fine particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) inside bus, ac (air-conditioned) and non-ac car and on an Indian NH over 200 km length. A total of nine round journeys were made in three modes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized linear model (GLM) were applied to quantify the contribution of determinants that may explain the variability of exposure concentrations and their association with in-vehicle temperature and relative humidity (RH). The highest and lowest exposures concentrations to PM2.5 were observed in non-ac car (89 ± 32 μg m−3) and the ac car (55 ± 19 μg m−3). Exposures concentrations in non-ac car were higher during in-city travel (113 ± 36 μg m−3). The average CO exposure concentrations were highest in ac car (2.0 ± 0.9 ppm). Results of GLM analysis suggested that travel mode, highway segments (in/out-city) and the journey times are key determinants of personal exposure concentrations. Travel mode for PM2.5 (15%) and NH segments for CO (21%) explained maximum variability. Altogether, these explained 33% and 57% of the variability in PM2.5 and CO exposure concentrations, respectively. PM2.5 consists of soot, mineral and fly ash that are a proxy of fresh exhaust emissions, re-suspended road dust and industrial emissions, respectively. Additionally, EDX analyses revealed an abundance of Si, Al, Ca and Pb, confirming re-suspension, brake/tire wear and construction dust as important sources.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
Kolluru, Soma Sekhara Rao
Patra, Aditya Kumar
Date : 11 January 2019
DOI : 10.1016/j.apr.2019.01.012
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2019 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Personal exposure concentrations; National highway; Travel mode; GLM; SEM-EDX
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 29 Jan 2019 14:58
Last Modified : 12 Jan 2020 02:08

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