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Calix(4)arene urea derivatives: the pathway from fundamental studies to the selective removal of fluorides and phosphates from water

Danil de Namor, Angela, Abou Hamdan, W, Webb, O, Bance- Soualhi, R, Howlin, Brendan and Al Hakawati, N (2018) Calix(4)arene urea derivatives: the pathway from fundamental studies to the selective removal of fluorides and phosphates from water Journal of Hazardous Materials.

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Wet processes of phosphoric acids produce untreated wastewater containing large amounts of fluoride leading to serious environmental problems. This paper reports fundamental studies on two lower rim functionalised calix[4]arene based receptors namely 5, 11, 17, 23 tetra-tert-butyl, 25, 27 bis [diethylphenylurea]ethoxy, 26, 28 dihydroxycalix[4]arene, 1 and 25, 27 bis[diethylphenylurea]ethoxy, 26, 28 dihydroxycalix[4]arene, 2 and their ionic interactions. It is shown that these receptors only interact with fluoride and phosphate in acetonitrile. Their receptive properties are higher for phosphate (2:1 anion:receptor complex) relative to fluoride (1:1 complex).However thermodynamics shows that these receptors are more selective for fluoride relative to phosphate in the formation of the 1:1 complex. The pathway from fundamental studies to the use of these receptors for removing these anions from water has been tested. The receptive properties of 1 for phosphate are held when the extraction involves aqueous solutions containing individual ions. However in mixtures containing both anions, the kinetics of the process and the selectivity of 1 for fluoride predominate and as a result, fluoride is better extracted than phosphate. The counter-ion effect on the removal process is assessed from Molecular Simulation studies. The removal of fluoride from phosphate is discussed taking into account existing technologies.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemistry
Authors :
Danil de Namor,
Abou Hamdan, W
Webb, O
Bance- Soualhi, R
Al Hakawati, N
Date : 6 July 2018
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.025
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Uncontrolled Keywords : Fluoride, Phosphate, Extraction, Selectivity, Hosting Capacity
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 12 Jul 2018 09:34
Last Modified : 06 Jul 2019 02:08

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