University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

Geographic-Based Spray-and-Relay (GSaR): An efficient routing scheme for DTNs

Cao, Y, Sun, Zhili, Wang, Ning, Riaz, Maryam, Cruickshank, Haitham and Liu, X (2015) Geographic-Based Spray-and-Relay (GSaR): An efficient routing scheme for DTNs IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 64 (4). pp. 1548-1564.

IEEE TVT - GSaR - April 2015.pdf - Version of Record
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (2MB) | Preview
[img] Text (licence)
Restricted to Repository staff only
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (33kB)


In this paper, we design and evaluate the proposed geographic-based spray-and-relay (GSaR) routing scheme in delay/disruption-tolerant networks. To the best of our knowledge, GSaR is the first spray-based geographic routing scheme using historical geographic information for making a routing decision. Here, the term spray means that only a limited number of message copies are allowed for replication in the network. By estimating a movement range of destination via the historical geographic information, GSaR expedites the message being sprayed toward this range, meanwhile prevents that away from and postpones that out of this range. As such, the combination of them intends to fast and efficiently spray the limited number of message copies toward this range and effectively spray them within range, to reduce the delivery delay and increase the delivery ratio. Furthermore, GSaR exploits delegation forwarding to enhance the reliability of the routing decision and handle the local maximum problem, which is considered to be the challenges for applying the geographic routing scheme in sparse networks. We evaluate GSaR under three city scenarios abstracted from real world, with other routing schemes for comparison. Results show that GSaR is reliable for delivering messages before the expiration deadline and efficient for achieving low routing overhead ratio. Further observation indicates that GSaR is also efficient in terms of a low and fair energy consumption over the nodes in the network.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Electronic Engineering
Authors :
Cao, Y
Liu, X
Date : April 2015
DOI : 10.1109/TVT.2014.2331395
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2015 IEEE.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Delay/disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs); Efficiency; Geographic routing; Spraying messages
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 28 Mar 2017 11:00
Last Modified : 16 Jan 2019 17:04

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800