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Facial changes related to brachycephaly in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari‐like malformation associated pain and secondary syringomyelia

Knowler, Susan P., Dumas, Eleonore, Spiteri, Michaela, McFadyen, Angus K., Stringer, Felicity, Wells, Kevin and Rusbridge, Clare (2019) Facial changes related to brachycephaly in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari‐like malformation associated pain and secondary syringomyelia Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 34 (1). pp. 237-246.

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Background: Recent studies including an innovative machine learning technique indicated Chiari-like malformation (CM) is influenced by brachycephalic features. Objectives: Morphometric analysis of facial anatomy and dysmorphia in CM-associated pain (CM-P) and syringomyelia (SM) in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Animals:Sixty-six client-owned CKCS. Methods:Retrospective study of anonymized T2W sagittal magnetic resonance imaging of 3 clinical groups: (1) 11 without central canal dilation (ccd) or SM (CM-N),(2) 15 with CM-P with no SM or <2 mm ccd (CM-P), and (3) 40 with syrinx width≥4 mm (SM-S). Morphometric analysis assessed rostral skull flattening and position of the hard and soft palate relative to the cranial base in each clinical group and compared CKCS with and without SM-S. Results:Sixteen of 28 measured variables were associated to SM-S compared toCM-N and CM-P. Of these 6 were common to both groups. Predictive variables determined by discriminant analysis were (1) the ratio of cranial height with cranial length (P< .001 between SM-S and CM-N) and (2) the distance between the cere-brum and the frontal bone (P< .001 between SM-S and CM-P). CM-P had the lowestmean height of the maxillary area. Conclusions and Clinical Importance:CKCS with CM-P and SM-S have cranial brachycephaly with osseous insufficiency in the skull with rostral flattening and increased proximity of the hard and soft palate to the cranial base. Changes are greatest with CM-P. These findings have relevance for understanding disease patho-genesis and for selection of head conformation for breeding purposes

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Authors :
Knowler, Susan P.
Dumas, Eleonore
Spiteri, Michaela
McFadyen, Angus K.
Stringer, Felicity
Date : 5 November 2019
DOI : 10.1111/jvim.15632
Copyright Disclaimer : This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in anymedium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.© 2019 The Authors.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicinepublished by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Depositing User : James Marshall
Date Deposited : 26 Jun 2020 08:59
Last Modified : 21 Aug 2020 14:16

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