University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

Bespoke Container Molecules for Fuel Additives.

Webb, Oliver Anthony. (2013) Bespoke Container Molecules for Fuel Additives. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)..

[img]
Preview
Text
27750271.pdf
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike.

Download (75MB) | Preview

Abstract

The findings of the first reported guest centric encapsulation study are presented within. The guests were of interest as petrol and diesel (fuel) additives, with the focus on 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN), di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), aniline, N-methylaniline (NMA) and N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA). Complexation with 2-EHN and DTBP was achieved with the novel calix[4]arene derivative, 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl, 25 27-bis(oxyethylphenylurea), 26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene, CA(III). This was confirmed in solution by the use of NMR techniques. The multi-step procedure to yield a tetrol cavitand, with recent updates to the procedures are fully described. A new carceplex system with aniline encapsulated, carceplex aniline (4,24-5,5'-6,10-11,11’-12,16-17,17’-18,22-23,23’-4’,24’-6’,10’-12’,16’-18',22'-dodecamethylenedioxy, 2,8,14,20,2’,8’,14’,20’-octapentyl-bis-calix[4]arene aniline) was produced in a pioneering pressure tube encapsulation following unsuccessful attempts under reflux conditions. A pyrogallol[4]arene with pentyl pendant group (2,8,14,20-tetrapentylpyrogallol[4]arene) PA(I) was synthesised and successfully employed for self-assembled complex formation with aniline, NMA and NNDMA. These complexes were found to be stable in polar and apolar media at 313 K over a duration of 2 months. The complexes were of stoichiometry 10:1 (aniline : PA(I)), 12:1 (NMA:PA(I)), and 4:1 (NNDMA:PA(I)). Significant variation was observed when complexes were analysed by TGA in air up to 800°C compared to control. PA(I) aniline and PA(I) NMA displayed solubilities in apolar media making them suitable for analysis in test engines as fuel additives. The first report of a (two-step) carcerand synthesised from pyrogallol[4]arene, PA(I) with the introduction of methylene dioxy spanning and bridging groups, yielding the novel carcerand 4,24-5,4’-6,5’-10,11’-12,16-17,16’-18,17’-22,23’-23,24’-6,10’-18’,22’-dodecamethylenedioxy, 2,8,14,20,2’,8’,14’,20’-octapentyl-bis-calix[4]arene is also presented.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Divisions : Theses
Authors : Webb, Oliver Anthony.
Date : 2013
Additional Information : Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Surrey (United Kingdom), 2013.
Depositing User : EPrints Services
Date Deposited : 14 May 2020 14:56
Last Modified : 14 May 2020 15:05
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/856776

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year


Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800