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Rectified Wing Loss for Efficient and Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks.

Feng, Zhenhua, Kittler, Josef, Awais, Muhammad and Wu, Xiao-Jun (2019) Rectified Wing Loss for Efficient and Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks. International Journal of Computer Vision. pp. 1-20.

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Efficient and robust facial landmark localisation is crucial for the deployment of real-time face analysis systems. This paper presents a new loss function, namely Rectified Wing (RWing) loss, for regression-based facial landmark localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We first systemically analyse different loss functions, including L2, L1 and smooth L1. The analysis suggests that the training of a network should pay more attention to small-medium errors. Motivated by this finding, we design a piece-wise loss that amplifies the impact of the samples with small-medium errors. Besides, we rectify the loss function for very small errors to mitigate the impact of inaccuracy of manual annotation. The use of our RWing loss boosts the performance significantly for regression-based CNNs in facial landmarking, especially for lightweight network architectures. To address the problem of under-representation of samples with large pose variations, we propose a simple but effective boosting strategy, referred to as pose-based data balancing. In particular, we deal with the data imbalance problem by duplicating the minority training samples and perturbing them by injecting random image rotation, bounding box translation and other data augmentation strategies. Last, the proposed approach is extended to create a coarse-to-fine framework for robust and efficient landmark localisation. Moreover, the proposed coarse-to-fine framework is able to deal with the small sample size problem effectively. The experimental results obtained on several well-known benchmarking datasets demonstrate the merits of our RWing loss and prove the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Electronic Engineering
Authors :
Awais, Muhammad
Wu, Xiao-Jun
Date : 4 December 2019
DOI : doi.10.1007/s11263-019-01275-0
Grant Title : EPSRC Grant
Copyright Disclaimer : © The Author(s) 2019
Uncontrolled Keywords : Faciallandmarklocalisation·deepconvolutional neural networks · rectified Wing Loss · pose-based data balancing·coarse-to-finenetworks
Depositing User : James Marshall
Date Deposited : 24 Jan 2020 13:55
Last Modified : 18 Feb 2020 10:06

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