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Interference from haloacetamides during the determination of haloacetic acids using gas chromatography

Zhang, Aihong, Chu, Wenhai, Bond, Tom, Wang, Feifei, Pan, Yang, Tong, Jun and Zhu, Huifeng (2019) Interference from haloacetamides during the determination of haloacetic acids using gas chromatography Journal of Chromatography A, 460652.

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Abstract

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the second largest class of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by weight in water and are more cytotoxic and genotoxic to mammalian cells than trihalomethanes, the first largest class of DBPs. Gas chromatography (GC) is the most widely used technique for determining HAAs. Due to their polar nature, derivatization prior to GC analysis is required. Typically, derivatization is undertaken with acidic methanol, which converts HAAs to the corresponding methyl ester (haloacetic acid methyl esters, abbreviated as HAAMEs), and HAAs are quantified by measuring HAAMEs. In this study, the interference from two other groups of DBPs, the haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAMs), on the determination of HAAs was investigated. HANs and HAMs at a range of concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/L) were subjected to the same derivatization and analytical procedures as HAAs. The stability of HANs and HAMs under strongly acidic conditions was assessed and the operative mechanism of interference was investigated. The results showed that HAMs significantly interfered with the determination of the corresponding HAAs and the transformation rates of HAMs (representing the extent of HAMs transforming to corresponding HAAMEs) ranged from 6.5 to 45.7%, while the impact of HANs can be neglected. The stability of HANs and HAMs under strongly acidic conditions indicated that hydrolysis was not the cause of the interference. Instead, it was proposed that HAMs react with methyl alcohol, to generate the same corresponding HAAMEs that was generated when HAAs reacted with methyl alcohol. A method for revising HAA concentrations in the presence of HAMs is suggested.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Zhang, Aihong
Chu, Wenhai
Bond, Tomt.bond@surrey.ac.uk
Wang, Feifei
Pan, Yang
Tong, Jun
Zhu, Huifeng
Date : 25 October 2019
DOI : 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460652
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Uncontrolled Keywords : Haloacetic acids; Haloacetamides; Gas chromatography; Derivatization; Drinking water
Additional Information : The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51822808; 51778445; 51578389), National Major Science and Technology Project of China (No. 2017ZX07201005), Shanghai City Youth Science and Technology Star Project (No. 17QA1404400).
Depositing User : Diane Maxfield
Date Deposited : 18 Nov 2019 15:19
Last Modified : 18 Nov 2019 15:19
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/853169

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