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Public health implications of particulate matter inside bus terminals in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Nogueira, Thiago, Kumar, Prashant, Nardocci, Adelaide and Andrade, Maria de Fatima (2019) Public health implications of particulate matter inside bus terminals in Sao Paulo, Brazil Science of the Total Environment, 135064.

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Abstract

Good quality ambient air is recognized as an important factor of social justice. In addition, providing access to high-capacity public transportation in big cities is known to be a good practice of social equity, as well as economic and environmental sustainability. However, the health risks associated with air pollution are not distributed equally across cities; the most vulnerable people are more exposed to ambient air as they commute to work and wait for buses or trains at the stations. The overall goal of this work was to assess the determinants of human exposure to particulate matter (PM) during commuting time spent inside bus terminals in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), in Brazil. Fine and coarse particles were collected at four bus terminals in the MASP. The concentrations of PM and its harmful constituents (black carbon and metals) were used in order to estimate potential doses and the associated health risk during the time spent at bus terminals in the MASP. Our findings show that bus commuters travelling through the bus terminal in the MASP on weekdays inhaled up to 128% higher doses of coarse particles than did those travelling outside the terminal; even on weekends, that difference was as high as 56%. Our risk assessment indicated that time spent inside a bus terminal can result in an intolerable health risk for commuters, mainly because of the Cr present in fine particles. Although bus commuters are exposed to fine particle concentrations up to 2 times lower than the worldwide average, we can affirm that inhalable particles in the MASP bus terminals pose a high carcinogenic risk to the daily users of those terminals, mainly those in the most susceptible groups, which include people with heart or lung disease, older adults and children.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Nogueira, Thiago
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.uk
Nardocci, Adelaide
Andrade, Maria de Fatima
Date : 23 November 2019
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135064
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Bus commuters; Black carbon; Potential dose; Risk assessment; Toxic metals
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 07 Nov 2019 14:05
Last Modified : 02 Dec 2019 13:09
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/853076

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