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Cross-Domain Associations Between Motor Ability, Independent Exploration, and Large-Scale Spatial Navigation; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Typical Development

Farran, Emily K., Bowler, Aislinn, Karmiloff-Smith, Annette, D’Souza, Hana, Mayall, Leighanne and Hill, Elisabeth L. (2019) Cross-Domain Associations Between Motor Ability, Independent Exploration, and Large-Scale Spatial Navigation; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Williams Syndrome, and Typical Development Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 225.

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Abstract

In typical infants, the achievement of independent locomotion has a positive impact on the development of both small-scale and large-scale spatial cognition. Here we investigated whether this association between the motor and spatial domain: (1) persists into childhood and (2) is detrimental to the development of spatial cognition in individuals with motor deficits, namely, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Despite evidence of a co-occurring motor impairment in many individuals with ADHD, little is known about the developmental consequences of this impairment. Individuals with WS demonstrate impaired motor and spatial competence, yet the relationship between these two impairments is unknown. Typically developing (TD) children (N = 71), individuals with ADHD (N = 51), and individuals with WS (N = 20) completed a battery of motor tasks, a measure of independent exploration, and a virtual reality spatial navigation task. Retrospective motor milestone data were collected for the ADHD and WS groups. Results demonstrated a relationship between fine motor ability and spatial navigation in the TD group, which could reflect the developmental impact of the ability to manually manipulate objects, on spatial knowledge. In contrast, no relationships between the motor and spatial domains were observed for the ADHD or WS groups. Indeed, while there was evidence of motor impairment in both groups, only the WS group demonstrated an impairment in large-scale spatial navigation. The motor-spatial relationship in the TD, but not the ADHD and WS groups, suggests that aspects of spatial cognition can develop via a developmental pathway which bypasses input from the motor domain.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Psychology
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Farran, Emily K.e.farran@surrey.ac.uk
Bowler, Aislinn
Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
D’Souza, Hana
Mayall, Leighanne
Hill, Elisabeth L.
Date : 3 July 2019
Funders : Waterloo Foundation, Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
DOI : 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00225
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2019 Farran, Bowler, Karmiloff-Smith, D’Souza, Mayall and Hill. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Contributors :
ContributionNameEmailORCID
http://www.loc.gov/loc.terms/relators/EDTMeneghetti, Chiara
Uncontrolled Keywords : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Williams syndrome; Motor development; Spatial cognition; Navigation
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 09 Jul 2019 07:38
Last Modified : 09 Jul 2019 07:38
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/852224

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