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Beliefs that contribute to delays in diagnosis of prostate cancer among Afro‐Caribbean men in Trinidad and Tobago

King‐Okoye, Michelle, Arber, Anne and Faithfull, Sara (2019) Beliefs that contribute to delays in diagnosis of prostate cancer among Afro‐Caribbean men in Trinidad and Tobago Psycho-Oncology, 28 (6). pp. 1321-1327.

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The aim of this study was to explore TT men’s pre-diagnosis experiences of prostate cancer (PCa). This study is part of a wider project that examined men and their partners’ experiences of routes to diagnosis for PCa in TT.


Men (n=51) were voluntarily recruited to semi-structured interviews from four centres. Data were analysed following principles of Grounded Theory.


Major barriers to medical help-seeking were highlighted as lack of knowledge and awareness of the prostate gland and symptoms of PCa, the digital rectal exam (DRE), PSA, cultural and religious beliefs and hegemonic masculinity norms and non-reporting of bodily changes to GPs. Fear of DRE, distrust in providers and misinterpretation of bodily changes as related to ageing and diabetes mellitus also contributed to delays towards seeking medical help. Men’s interactions with pharmacists and traditional healers lengthened the time taken to consult with Health Care Providers for prostate concerns.


TT men’s PCa pre-diagnosis experiences are important to unearth barriers and facilitators to care along routes to diagnosis for this disease. This can help target specific health promotion strategies to motivate men to seek medical care for symptoms in a timely manner.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Health Sciences
Authors :
King‐Okoye, Michelle
Date : June 2019
DOI : 10.1002/pon.5085
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2019 The Authors. Psycho‐Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Prostate cancer; Oncology; Pre-diagnosis; Experiences; Afro-Caribbean men; Trinidad and Tobago
Depositing User : Diane Maxfield
Date Deposited : 02 May 2019 13:33
Last Modified : 13 Aug 2019 15:06

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