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Impact of route choice and period of the day on cyclists' exposure to black carbon in London, Rotterdam and São Paulo

Sassen Brand, Veronika, Kumar, Prashant, Damascena, Aline Santos, Pritchard, John P., Geurs, Karst T. and Andrade, Maria de Fatima (2019) Impact of route choice and period of the day on cyclists' exposure to black carbon in London, Rotterdam and São Paulo Journal of Transport Geography, 76. pp. 153-165.

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Abstract

Cyclists are exposed to direct traffic emissions due to their proximity to on-road vehicles. Several studies associate black carbon (BC) exposure with both mortality and morbidity caused by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We did a comparative assessment of cyclists' exposure to BC in three cities: London, Rotterdam and São Paulo. We measured personal exposure to BC during the peak and off-peak hours in all three cities using the same instrument. Three origin-destination (O-D) pairs, each with two routes, for a total of six routes, were chosen in each city. The first route of each O-D pair was along busy major roads and the other perceived to be clean passing close to green/blue/quiet areas. This work brings together results from three different Latin American and European cities, with an aim to understand the BC exposure variabilities while cycling during peak and off-peak hours, identify main pollution hotspots resulting in enhanced exposure and associate the measured concentrations with proximity to green areas and waterways. BC concentrations were higher during the morning-peak hours compared with evening-peak hours in Rotterdam and São Paulo. London showed an opposite trend, with higher concentrations during evening hours. In most cases, the cyclists using the alternative route were found to be less exposed to BC in London and São Paulo. In Rotterdam, the differences in absolute concentrations between main and alternate routes were modest. Each city is different but the common features among all were that the exposure is related to route choice, a period of the day and proximity with the mobile sources. These findings have implications in terms of considering the pollutants exposure when establishing new cycle routes.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Sassen Brand, Veronikav.sassenbrand@surrey.ac.uk
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.uk
Damascena, Aline Santos
Pritchard, John P.
Geurs, Karst T.
Andrade, Maria de Fatima
Date : April 2019
Funders : Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
DOI : 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.03.007
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Exposure assessment; Commuter exposure; Cycle users; Black carbon; Mobile measurements
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 10 Apr 2019 13:14
Last Modified : 10 Apr 2019 13:14
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/851048

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