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The simulation of hallucinations to reduce the stigma of schizophrenia: A systematic review

Ando, Shuntaro, Clement, Sarah, Barley, Elizabeth Alexandra and Thornicroft, Graham (2011) The simulation of hallucinations to reduce the stigma of schizophrenia: A systematic review Schizophrenia Research, 133 (1-3). pp. 8-16.

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Background/objectives: Many people with schizophrenia face stigmatisation. Several methods have been produced to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia in order to increase empathy and understanding about the condition. However, there has been no review of such methods. This systematic review aims to determine whether and how simulated hallucinations are effective in reducing stigma, and if simulated hallucinations are safe and acceptable. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Worldcat Dissertations and Theses were searched from 1980 to September 2010. Reference checking, hand-searching, and contacting of experts in the field were also performed. A narrative synthesis of quantitative studies was conducted, and qualitative studies were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Results: Ten studies were included. Simulation tools varied in context, but consistently increased both empathy towards, and desire for social distance from, people with schizophrenia whilst findings for other attitudes were inconsistent. Participants reported physical, cognitive and emotional discomfort. Qualitative data suggest that these discomforts give participants an 'insider's perspective' which produced empathy and respect. Simulated hallucinations sometimes produced concurrent negative affect, and physical and emotional distress, but were considered a highly acceptable learning tool. Discussion/conclusions: Simulated hallucinations have contradictory effects on stigma, increasing empathy but also the desire for social distance. They should therefore be used with caution. Further research is required to discover if there is a way of using simulated hallucination interventions that increases empathy without increasing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Health Sciences
Authors :
Ando, Shuntaro
Clement, Sarah
Barley, Elizabeth
Thornicroft, Graham
Date : 17 October 2011
DOI : 10.1016/j.schres.2011.09.011
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Hallucination, Schizophrenia, Simulation, Stigma, Systematic review, Virtual, affect, article, attitude to mental illness, bibliographic database, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, cognitive defect, data analysis, Embase, emotional disorder, emotional stress, empathy, ethnographic research, hallucination, human, learning, Medline, mental disease, narrative, patient safety, physical disease, physical stress, priority journal, PsycINFO, schizophrenia, simulation, social distance, social psychology, stigma, systematic review, Worldcat Dissertation and Theses, Databases, Factual, Hallucinations, Humans, Patient Simulation, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic Psychology, Social Stigma, Stereotyping
Depositing User : Diane Maxfield
Date Deposited : 19 Jul 2019 15:42
Last Modified : 19 Jul 2019 15:42

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