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Single Layered 4 x 4 Butler Matrix Without Phase-shifters and Crossovers

Babale, Suleiman Aliyu, Rahim, Sharul Kamal Abd., Barro, Oumar Alassane, Himdi, Mohamed and Khalily, Mohsen (2018) Single Layered 4 x 4 Butler Matrix Without Phase-shifters and Crossovers IEEE Access.

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Traditional design of 4 x 4 Butler matrix (BM) uses couplers, phase shifters (PS) and crossovers. Due to some troublesome issues related to PS and the crossovers involved in the design of BM which degrades its performance, this paper presents a planar 4 x 4 BM without PS and crossovers. It is accomplished with the help of a modified coupler. The modified coupler is realized to have a 450 output phase difference which replaces the function of the 450 phase shifters. The 450 output phase differences obtained from this type of coupler combined with quadrature coupler gives the desired phase differences required at the output of the BM. The BM is meant to operate at 6 GHz. The simulated and measured reflection coefficients and isolations at all ports are below −17 dB at the center frequency. The result also shows an amplitude imbalance within ±3 dB with phase mismatch of about ±3° at the center frequency. The −10 dB reflection coefficient bandwidth is 37.10% and the transmission bandwidth between −5 dB and −9 dB is about 31.0%. Both the simulated and experimental radiation patterns obtained by exciting the input ports (P1 to P4) of the BM produces four orthogonal beams deposed at +15.3°, −47.6°, +47.6° and −15.3°. This beam steering depicts a stable beam scanning angle of the BM which is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Electronic Engineering
Authors :
Babale, Suleiman Aliyu
Rahim, Sharul Kamal Abd.
Barro, Oumar Alassane
Himdi, Mohamed
Date : 15 November 2018
DOI : 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2881605
Copyright Disclaimer : (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Crossovers, Butler matrix, modified coupler and phase shifters.
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 20 Nov 2018 13:12
Last Modified : 20 Nov 2018 13:12

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