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Effect of single and combined monochromatic light on the human pupillary light response

Bonmati-Carrion, María Ángeles, Hild, Konstanze, Isherwood, Cheryl, Sweeney, Stephen J, Revell, Victoria, Madrid, Juan Antonio, Rol, María Ángeles and Skene, Debra (2018) Effect of single and combined monochromatic light on the human pupillary light response Frontiers in Neurology, 9, 1019.

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Abstract

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a neurological reflex driven by rods, cones, and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Our aim was to achieve a more precise picture of the effects of 5-min duration monochromatic light stimuli, alone or in combination, on the human PLR, to determine its spectral sensitivity and to assess the importance of photon flux. Using pupillometry, the PLR was assessed in 13 participants (6 women) aged 27.2 ± 5.41 years (mean ± SD) during 5-min light stimuli of purple (437 nm), blue (479 nm), red (627 nm), and combinations of red+purple or red+blue light. In addition, nine 5-min, photon-matched light stimuli, ranging in 10 nm increments peaking between 420 and 500 nm were tested in 15 participants (8 women) aged 25.7 ± 8.90 years. Maximum pupil constriction, time to achieve this, constriction velocity, area under the curve (AUC) at short (0–60 s), and longer duration (240–300 s) light exposures, and 6-s post-illumination pupillary response (6-s PIPR) were assessed. Photoreceptor activation was estimated by mathematical modeling. The velocity of constriction was significantly faster with blue monochromatic light than with red or purple light. Within the blue light spectrum (between 420 and 500 nm), the velocity of constriction was significantly faster with the 480 nm light stimulus, while the slowest pupil constriction was observed with 430 nm light. Maximum pupil constriction was achieved with 470 nm light, and the greatest AUC0−60 and AUC240−300 was observed with 490 and 460 nm light, respectively. The 6-s PIPR was maximum after 490 nm light stimulus. Both the transient (AUC0−60) and sustained (AUC240−300) response was significantly correlated with melanopic activation. Higher photon fluxes for both purple and blue light produced greater amplitude sustained pupillary constriction. The findings confirm human PLR dependence on wavelength, monochromatic or bichromatic light and photon flux under 5-min duration light stimuli. Since the most rapid and high amplitude PLR occurred within the 460–490 nm light range (alone or combined), our results suggest that color discrimination should be studied under total or partial substitution of this blue light range (460–490 nm) by shorter wavelengths (~440 nm). Thus for nocturnal lighting, replacement of blue light with purple light might be a plausible solution to preserve color discrimination while minimizing melanopic activation.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Biosciences and Medicine
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Bonmati-Carrion, María Ángeles
Hild, KonstanzeK.Hild@surrey.ac.uk
Isherwood, Cherylc.m.isherwood@surrey.ac.uk
Sweeney, Stephen J
Revell, VictoriaV.Revell@surrey.ac.uk
Madrid, Juan Antonio
Rol, María Ángeles
Skene, DebraD.Skene@surrey.ac.uk
Date : 29 November 2018
DOI : 10.3389/fneur.2018.01019
Copyright Disclaimer : Copyright © 2018 Bonmati-Carrion, Hild, Isherwood, Sweeney, Revell, Madrid, Rol and Skene. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Uncontrolled Keywords : pupillometry, light, pupillary light reflex, ipRGC, melanopsin, human melanopic lux
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 13 Nov 2018 12:53
Last Modified : 30 Nov 2018 15:40
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/849867

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