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Comparison of the chemical composition of British and Continental European bottled waters by multivariate analysis

Felipe-Sotelo, Monica, Henshall-Bell, E.R., Evans, N.D.M. and Read, David (2015) Comparison of the chemical composition of British and Continental European bottled waters by multivariate analysis Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 39. pp. 33-42.

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The elemental composition of 37 bottled waters from the UK and continental Europe has been determined. Ca, K, Mg, Na, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, V and Zn were determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS, in addition to inorganic and total organic carbon. The composition of all the waters analysed fell within the guideline values recommended by the World Health Organization. Na, Ca, Sr and Ba showed the widest variation in concentrations, ranging over two orders of magnitude. Levels of Fe were below the limit of detection (30 μg L−1) in all samples analysed. Waters produced in the UK generally showed lower levels of most major elements and trace metals, with the exception of Ba (up to 455 μg L−1). Italian waters showed the highest concentrations of Sr (3000–8000 μg L−1) and U (8–13 μg L−1), whereas waters produced in Slovakia and the Czech Republic showed the highest levels of Pb (0.7–4 μg L−1). The use of multivariate analysis reveals an association between high alkaline metal content and high concentrations of As and Cr. There also appears to be a correlation between high Ca and Sr content and high levels of U. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates that the composition of bottled water can be distinguished primarily by the country of origin, over other factors including the geological environment of the source. This would suggest that composition reflects, and is biased towards, consumer preferences.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemistry
Authors :
Henshall-Bell, E.R.
Evans, N.D.M.
Date : May 2015
DOI : 10.1016/j.jfca.2014.10.014
Depositing User : Karen Garland
Date Deposited : 26 Sep 2018 13:29
Last Modified : 26 Sep 2018 13:46

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