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Airborne particles in the city center of Kuala Lumpur: Origin, potential driving factors, and deposition flux in human respiratory airways

Khan, Md Firoz, Hamid, Ahmad Hazuwan, Bari, Md Aynul, Tajudin, Abdul Basit Ahmad, Latif, Mohd Talib, Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd, Sahani, Mazrura, Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul, Yusup, Yusri, Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul , Yusoff, Mohd Famey, Amin, Nowshad, Akhtaruzzaman, Md, Kindzierski, Warren and Kumar, Prashant (2018) Airborne particles in the city center of Kuala Lumpur: Origin, potential driving factors, and deposition flux in human respiratory airways Science of The Total Environment, 650 (1). pp. 1195-1206.

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Equatorial warming conditions in urban areas can influence the particle number concentrations (PNCs), but studies assessing such factors are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of size-resolved PNCs, their potential deposition rate in the human respiratory system, and probable local and transboundary inputs of PNCs in Kuala Lumpur. Particle size distributions of a 0.34 to 9.02 μm optical-equivalent size range were monitored at a frequency of 60 s between December 2016 and January 2017 using an optical-based compact scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Diurnal and correlation analysis showed that traffic emissions and meteorological confounding factors were potential driving factors for changes in the PNCs (Dp ≤1 μm) at the modeling site. Trajectory modeling showed that a PNC ˂100/cm3 was influenced mainly by Indo-China region air masses. On the other hand, a PNC >100/cm3 was influenced by air masses originating from the Indian Ocean and Indochina regions. Receptor models extracted five potential sources of PNCs: industrial emissions, transportation, aged traffic emissions, miscellaneous sources, and a source of secondary origin coupled with meteorological factors. A respiratory deposition model for male and female receptors predicted that the deposition flux of PM1 (particle mass ≤1 μm) into the alveolar (AL) region was higher (0.30 and 0.25 μg/h, respectively) than the upper airway (UA) (0.29 and 0.24 μg/h, respectively) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions (0.02 μg/h for each). However, the PM2.5 deposition flux was higher in the UA (2.02 and 1.68 μg/h, respectively) than in the TB (0.18 and 0.15 μg/h, respectively) and the AL regions (1.09 and 0.91 μg/h, respectively); a similar pattern was also observed for PM10.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
Khan, Md Firoz
Hamid, Ahmad Hazuwan
Bari, Md Aynul
Tajudin, Abdul Basit Ahmad
Latif, Mohd Talib
Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd
Sahani, Mazrura
Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul
Yusup, Yusri
Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul
Yusoff, Mohd Famey
Amin, Nowshad
Akhtaruzzaman, Md
Kindzierski, Warren
Date : 7 September 2018
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.072
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Uncontrolled Keywords : Urban air pollution; Particle number concentration; Size distribution; Respiratory deposition
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 11 Sep 2018 09:24
Last Modified : 08 Sep 2019 02:08

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