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Investigating the predictors of workplace embitterment using a longitudinal design

Michailidis, Evie and Cropley, Mark (2018) Investigating the predictors of workplace embitterment using a longitudinal design Occupational Medicine, 68 (8), kqy121. pp. 523-529.

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Embitterment has been described as the emotion generated by an event experienced as unjust. Although clinicians working in occupational health services readily recognise features of embitterment in organisations, little attention has been given to workplace embitterment. Research is warranted to identify predictors and features of employees’ embitterment.


To explore the predictors and the chronicity of workplace embitterment over six months.


A longitudinal study investigating the chronicity of workplace embitterment and its antecedents among employees from various occupations. Data were collected by online questionnaires including measures of workplace embitterment, organisational justice and employees’ perceptions of supervisory control.


The survey was completed by 352 employees at Time 1, and 169 at Time 2. The final sample (assessed at two time points) was 147 employees. The feeling of workplace embitterment appeared to be very stable during the six-month period. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that perceptions of distributive injustice, informational injustice, and employees’ perceptions on supervisory over-control in Time 1 significantly predicted embitterment in Time 2. Only the relationship between employees’ perceptions of supervisory control and embitterment remained significant after controlling for baseline levels of embitterment.


This study provides evidence for the negative impact perceived organisational injustice can have on employees’ experience of workplace embitterment. Results indicate that employees who perceive their supervisor as being over controlling are more likely to suffer from workplace embitterment. The finding that workplace embitterment is stable during a six-month period highlights the need for effective interventions in ameliorating and preventing workplace embitterment.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Psychology
Authors :
Michailidis, Evie
Date : 3 September 2018
DOI : 10.1093/occmed/kqy121
Copyright Disclaimer : This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Occupational Medicine, following peer review. The version of record E Michailidis, M Cropley; Investigating the predictors of workplace embitterment using a longitudinal design, Occupational Medicine, , kqy121, is available online at:
Uncontrolled Keywords : Post-traumatic embitterment disorder, workplace embitterment, organisational justice, supervisory control
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 08 Aug 2018 11:54
Last Modified : 04 Sep 2019 02:08

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