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Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells

Cronin, Harry M, Jayawardena, K D G Imalka, Stoeva, Zlatka, Shkunov, Maxim and Silva, S Ravi P (2017) Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells Nanotechnology, 28 (11).

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Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity (RH) and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Cl x PSCs with active area ≈1 cm2. We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance weakly depends on annealing time, but at higher (30%–40% RH) or lower (0%–15% RH) humidities it is very sensitive. Processing in humid environments is shown to lead to the growth of both larger Perovskite grains and larger voids; similar to the effect of thermal annealing, which also leads to grain growth. Therefore, samples which are annealed for too long under high humidity show loss of performance due to low open circuit voltage caused by an increased number of shunt paths. Based on these results it is clear that humidity and annealing time are closely interrelated and both are important factors affecting the performance of PSCs. The findings of this work open a route for reduced annealing times to be employed by control of humidity; critical in roll-to-roll manufacture where low manufacturing time is preferred for cost reductions.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Electronic Engineering
Authors :
Cronin, Harry
Jayawardena, K D G Imalka
Stoeva, Zlatka
Silva, S Ravi P
Date : 16 February 2017
Funders : UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
DOI : 10.1088/1361-6528/aa5bec
Depositing User : Diane Maxfield
Date Deposited : 03 Jul 2018 14:04
Last Modified : 06 Jul 2019 05:25

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