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Natural variability in exposure to fine particles and their trace elements during typical workdays in an urban area

Moreira, C, Squizzato, R, Beal⁠, A, Sanches de Almeida, D, Rudke, A, Ribeiro, M, de Fatima Andrade, M, Kumar, Prashant and Martins⁠, L (2018) Natural variability in exposure to fine particles and their trace elements during typical workdays in an urban area Transportation Research Part D, 63. pp. 333-346.

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Abstract

Studies on the natural human exposures to fine particulate matter (PM⁠2.5) and their elements composition are practically non-existent in South America. In order to understand the natural exposure of the typical Brazilian population to PM⁠2.5 and their trace element composition, we measured PM⁠2.5 concentrations and collected mass on filters for nine continuous hours during a typical workday of volunteers. In addition, bus routes were performed at peak and non-peak periods , mimicking the routine activity of the population. Mean concentrations of PM⁠2.5 in the bus and car groups were similar while the fraction of BCe was higher for the bus group. For all routes, mean PM⁠2.5 concentrations were higher during peak than non-peak hours, with an average of 43.5±33.1μgm⁠−3 and 14.3±10.2μgm⁠−3, respectively. The trace elements S, K and Na originated mainly from vehicle emissions; Na was associated with the presence of biofuel in diesel. Toxic elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn) were found at low levels as evident by the total hazard index that ranged from 2.15×10⁠−03 to 1.38 for volunteers. For all routes, the hazard index ranged from 2.25×10⁠−03 to 5.03. Average PM⁠2.5 respiratory deposition dose was estimated to be 0.60μg/kg-hour for peak hours. Potential health damages to people during their movements and at workplaces close to the traffic were identified. Improvements in the design of the building to reduce the entrance of air pollutants as well as the use of filters in the buses could help to limit population exposure.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Moreira, C
Squizzato, R
Beal⁠, A
Sanches de Almeida, D
Rudke, A
Ribeiro, M
de Fatima Andrade, M
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.uk
Martins⁠, L
Date : 18 June 2018
DOI : 10.1016/j.trd.2018.06.010
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Fine particulate matter Personal exposure Black carbon Trace metals Urban routes
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 14 Jun 2018 10:47
Last Modified : 06 Nov 2018 16:46
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/847057

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