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Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Introducing Electric Vehicles into an Electricity System with Large Storage Capacity

Garcia, R, Freire, F and Clift, Roland (2017) Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Introducing Electric Vehicles into an Electricity System with Large Storage Capacity Journal of Industrial Ecology, 22 (2). pp. 288-299.

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Abstract

Under some circumstances, electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce overall environmental impacts by displacing internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and by enabling more intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) by charging with surplus power in periods of low demand. However, the net effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of adding EVs into a national or regional electricity system are complex and, for a system with significant RES, are affected by the presence of storage capacity, such as pumped hydro storage (PHS). This article takes the Portuguese electricity system as a specific example, characterized by relatively high capacities of wind generation and PHS. The interactions between EVs and PHS are explored, using life cycle assessment to compare changes in GHG emissions for different scenarios with a fleet replacement model to describe the introduction of EVs. Where there is sufficient storage capacity to ensure that RES capacity is exploited without curtailment, as in Portugal, any additional demand, such as introduction of EVs, must be met by the next marginal technology. Whether this represents an average increase or decrease in GHG emissions depends on the carbon intensity of the marginal generating technology and on the fuel efficiency of the ICEVs displaced by the EVs, so that detailed analysis is needed for any specific energy system, allowing for future technological improvements. A simple way to represent these trade-offs is proposed as a basis for supporting strategic policies on introduction of EVs.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Centre for Environmental Strategy
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Garcia, R
Freire, F
Clift, RolandR.Clift@surrey.ac.uk
Date : 4 May 2017
DOI : 10.1111/jiec.12593
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017 by Yale University. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Garcia, R, Freire, F, and Clift, R. Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Introducing Electric Vehicles into an Electricity System with Large Storage Capacity, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 22 (2) DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12593, which has been published in final form at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jiec.12593. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
Uncontrolled Keywords : greenhouse gas (GHG) industrial ecology (IE) life cycle assessment (LCA) pumped hydro storage (PHS) renewable energy sources (RES) wind power
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 15 May 2018 11:26
Last Modified : 16 Jan 2019 19:09
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/846404

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