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Establishment of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Intranasal Challenge Model for Assessing Vaccine Efficacy

Strong, Rebecca, Graham, Simon P., La Rocca, S. A., Raue, Rudiger, Vangeel, Ilse and Steinbach, Falko (2018) Establishment of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Intranasal Challenge Model for Assessing Vaccine Efficacy Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, 24. pp. 24-1.

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop a bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) challenge model suitable for evaluation of efficacy of BVDV vaccines; a model that mimics natural infection and induces clear leukopenia and viremia. Clinical, hematological and virological parameters were evaluated after infection of two age groups of calves (3 and 9 months) with two BVDV-2 strains (1362727 and 502643). Calves became pyrexic between 8 and 9 days post inoculation and exhibited symptoms, such as nasal discharge, mild depression, cough, and inappetence. Leukopenia with associated lymphopenia and neutropenia was evident in all groups with lowest leukocyte and lymphocyte counts reached 8 dpi and granulocyte counts between 11 and 16 dpi, dependent on the strain and age of the calves. A more severe thrombocytopenia was seen in those animals inoculated with strain 1362727. Leukocyte and nasal swab samples were positive by virus isolation, as early as 3 dpi and 2 dpi respectively, independent of the inocula used. All calves seroconverted with high levels of BVDV-2 neutralizing antibodies. BVDV RNA was evident as late as 90 dpi and provides the first evidence of the presence of replicating virus long after recovery from BVDV-2 experimental infection. In summary, moderate disease can be induced after experimental infection of calves with a low titer of virulent BVDV-2, with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, viremia, and virus shedding. These strains represent an attractive model to assess the protective efficacy of existing and new vaccines against BVDV-2.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Strong, Rebecca
Graham, Simon P.s.graham@surrey.ac.uk
La Rocca, S. A.
Raue, Rudiger
Vangeel, Ilse
Steinbach, Falkof.steinbach@surrey.ac.uk
Date : 27 February 2018
Identification Number : 10.3389/fvets.2018.00024
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2018 Strong, Graham, La Rocca, Raue, Vangeel and Steinbach. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2; Experimental infection; Pathogenesis; Virus persistence; Challenge model
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 12 Apr 2018 13:59
Last Modified : 12 Apr 2018 13:59
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/846207

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