Ground-fixed and on-board measurements of nanoparticles in the wake of a moving vehicle
Carpentieri, M and Kumar, P (2011) Ground-fixed and on-board measurements of nanoparticles in the wake of a moving vehicle Atmospheric Environment, 45 (32). 5837 - 5852. ISSN 1352-2310
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.079
An integrated experimental methodology has been applied to measure number and size distributions of particles in the 5-560�nm size range in the wake of a diesel car running at different speeds. Measurements were made at both ground-fixed (0.10 and 0.25�m above the ground level) and on-board (in 12 different sampling locations behind the moving car) measurement configurations using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS50) with a sampling frequency up to 10�Hz. Results from both the experimental campaigns were analysed to understand the dynamics, dispersion and transport of nanoparticle emissions in the wake of a moving vehicle. Temporal changes in results were divided into three main stages (pre-evolution, evolution and post-evolution) after the release of exhaust emissions from the tailpipe. Evolution stage is of most interest where all the changes to particle number and size distribution occurred. Up to four evolution sub-stages were observed, each showing distinct evolution patterns of particle size distributions, depending on the particular experimental run. In agreement with previous studies, dilution was found to be the dominant process throughout all the evolution stages. The first evolution sub-stage was common to all the measurements, and consisted of an initial particle number concentrations and distributions change due to rapid (less than 1�s) nucleation followed by a rapid increase of accumulation mode particle number concentrations. After this first sub-stage the presence of vehicle wake with recirculating particles and the possible influence of other transformation processes lead to complex interactions. Results from the two experimental datasets clearly confirm the presence of two separate groups of particles: (i) new particles, which are freshly emitted and come directly from the tailpipe and (ii) relatively aged particles, which are entrained within the recirculation vortices of the vehicle wake and reside there for a longer time. The two groups have different characteristics and interact with each other. This interaction has often been overlooked in past studies about local scale dispersion of nanoparticle from moving vehicles.
|Additional Information:||NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Atmospheric Environment. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Atmospheric Environment, 45(32), October 2011, DOI 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.079.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Fast response measurements, Nanoparticles dispersion, Number concentrations, Size distribution, Ultrafine particles, Vehicle wake|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Mathematics|
|Deposited By:||Symplectic Elements|
|Deposited On:||11 Jan 2012 14:18|
|Last Modified:||11 May 2013 14:42|
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