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Preparation and optimization of macroalgae-derived solid acid catalysts

Jimenez Toro, Maria J, Dou, Xin, Ajewole, Isaac, Wang, Jiawei, Chong, Katie, Ai, Ning, Zeng, Ganning and Chen, Tao (2017) Preparation and optimization of macroalgae-derived solid acid catalysts Waste and Biomass Valorization.

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Abstract

Solid acid catalysts were synthesized from macroalgae Sargassum horneri via hydrothermal carbonization followed by sulfuric acid sulfonation. A three-variable Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to maximize surface acidity. The optimal preparation conditions were found to be at the carbonization temperature of 217 °C, the carbonization time of 4.6 hours and the sulfonation temperature of 108.5 °C. Under these conditions, the highest surface acidity achieved was 1.62 mmol g-1. Physical and chemical properties of prepared solid acid catalyst were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The results proved the grafting of -SO3H groups on an amorphous carbon structure. The catalyst activity was evaluated by the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The sample prepared achieved 96.6% esterification yield, which was higher than the 86.7% yield achieved by commercial Ambersyst-15 under the same reaction conditions.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemical and Process Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Jimenez Toro, Maria J
Dou, Xin
Ajewole, Isaac
Wang, Jiawei
Chong, Katie
Ai, Ning
Zeng, Ganning
Chen, TaoT.Chen@surrey.ac.uk
Date : 16 October 2017
Identification Number : 10.1007/s12649-017-0101-0
Copyright Disclaimer : © The Author(s) 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Solid acid catalyst; biomass; hydrothermal carbonization; esterification; Box-Behnken design
Depositing User : Jane Hindle
Date Deposited : 06 Oct 2017 07:46
Last Modified : 22 Jan 2018 11:51
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/842485

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