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Preparation and optimization of macroalgae-derived solid acid catalysts

Jimenez Toro, Maria J, Dou, Xin, Ajewole, Isaac, Wang, Jiawei, Chong, Katie, Ai, Ning, Zeng, Ganning and Chen, Tao (2017) Preparation and optimization of macroalgae-derived solid acid catalysts Waste and Biomass Valorization.

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Solid acid catalysts were synthesized from macroalgae Sargassum horneri via hydrothermal carbonization followed by sulfuric acid sulfonation. A three-variable Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to maximize surface acidity. The optimal preparation conditions were found to be at the carbonization temperature of 217 °C, the carbonization time of 4.6 hours and the sulfonation temperature of 108.5 °C. Under these conditions, the highest surface acidity achieved was 1.62 mmol g-1. Physical and chemical properties of prepared solid acid catalyst were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The results proved the grafting of -SO3H groups on an amorphous carbon structure. The catalyst activity was evaluated by the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The sample prepared achieved 96.6% esterification yield, which was higher than the 86.7% yield achieved by commercial Ambersyst-15 under the same reaction conditions.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemical and Process Engineering
Authors :
Jimenez Toro, Maria J
Dou, Xin
Ajewole, Isaac
Wang, Jiawei
Chong, Katie
Ai, Ning
Zeng, Ganning
Date : 16 October 2017
DOI : 10.1007/s12649-017-0101-0
Copyright Disclaimer : © The Author(s) 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Solid acid catalyst; biomass; hydrothermal carbonization; esterification; Box-Behnken design
Depositing User : Jane Hindle
Date Deposited : 06 Oct 2017 07:46
Last Modified : 16 Jan 2019 18:57

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