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A Raman spectro-microscopic investigation of ETFE-based radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes

Varcoe, John and Bance-Soualhi, Rachida (2017) A Raman spectro-microscopic investigation of ETFE-based radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes RSC Advances, 7. pp. 47726-47737.

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Abstract

This study used Raman spectro-microscopy to investigate the synthesis and degradation of radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes (RG-AEM) made using 50 μm thick poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films, vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer, and 1-methylpyrrolidine (MPY) amination agent. The data obtained confirmed the operation of the grafting-front mechanism. VBC grafting times of 1 and 4 h led to low degrees of grafting homogeneity, while 72 h led to extreme levels of grafting that resulted in mechanically weak RG-AEMs due to the excessive H2O contents. A grafting time of 16 h was optimal yielding a RG-AEM with an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.06 ± 0.02 mmol g-1 (n = 3). An excess of grafting was detected at the surface of this RG-AEM (at least within the first few μm of the surface). This RG-AEM was then degraded in O2-purged aqueous KOH (1.0 mol dm-3) for 14 d at 80 °C. Degradation was detected throughout the RG-AEM cross-section, where the Raman data was quantitatively consistent with the loss of IEC. A slight excess of degradation was detected at the surface of the RG-AEM. Degradation involved the loss of whole benzyl-1-methypyrrolidinium grafted units as well as the direct attack on the pendent (cationic) pyrrolidinium groups by the hydroxide anions.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemistry
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Varcoe, JohnJ.Varcoe@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Bance-Soualhi, Rachidar.bance-soualhi@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 11 October 2017
Funders : EPSRC
Identification Number : 10.1039/C7RA09650J
Grant Title : High Spec Raman Spectrometer Regional Facility
Copyright Disclaimer : This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Radiation-grafting; anion-exchange membranes; Raman microscopy; alkali degradation
Related URLs :
Additional Information : Details on how to obtain the raw data related to this article can be found at 10.15126/surreydata.00842458
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 12 Oct 2017 12:23
Last Modified : 12 Oct 2017 12:23
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/842462

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