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An analytical estimation of salt concentration in the upper and lower convective zones of a salinity gradient solar pond with either a pond with vertical walls or trapezoidal cross section

Sayer, Asaad, Al-Hussaini, Hazin and Campbell, Alasdair (2017) An analytical estimation of salt concentration in the upper and lower convective zones of a salinity gradient solar pond with either a pond with vertical walls or trapezoidal cross section Solar Energy.

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Abstract

Renewables offer the best opportunity to reduce greenhouse gases and introduce sustainable and desirable solutions to the world’s increasing demand for energy. Solar ponds are a simple, low-priced and efficient way to collect and store incident solar radiation; they have enormous capacity and huge unrealised potential. The most effective and widely-used type is the salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP), which can provide long-term storage, large capacity, and sufficient year-round power for a wide range of domestic, industrial and commercial purposes. It is essential to understand the best forms of construction and maintenance, including how to overcome the most significant challenge, that of establishing the different layers of water with their varying levels of saline concentration, as well as how to maintain these levels for optimal performance. This study investigates how to predict variations in salt concentrations over the pond’s lifetime, in order to maintain maximum performance. The paper derives analytical formulae to calculate how concentrations in the upper and lower convective zones (UCZ and LCZ) change over time. It also explores the different responses of ponds with vertical walls and inclined walls. The computed concentrations were compared with actual measurements from a small experimental pond, which had a surface area of 1 m2 and a total depth of 1 m, comprising UCZ, non-convective zone (NCZ) and LCZ with depths of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.4 m respectively. The results were also compared with the results of previous experiments from established ponds. An acceptable agreement was achieved. The results illustrated that the derived formulae can be used to estimate salt concentrations in the UCZ and LCZ. The outcomes also show that the inclination of the walls affects concentration levels in the UCZ, while its impact on the LCZ concentration is slight. The findings of this study could form the basis of future research, which could investigate other factors affecting salt concentration in the layers of a SGSP, such as wind speed, temperature and the timing of salt injections to the LCZ.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemical and Process Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Sayer, Asaada.h.sayer@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Al-Hussaini, Hazinh.al-hussaini@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Campbell, Alasdaira.n.campbell@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 20 December 2017
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Depositing User : Melanie Hughes
Date Deposited : 20 Sep 2017 08:48
Last Modified : 20 Sep 2017 08:48
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/842343

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