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Airborne particles in the Brazilian city of São Paulo: One-year investigation for the chemical composition and source apportionment

Martins Pereira, Guilherme, Teinilä, Kimmo, Custódio, Danilo, Gomes Santos, Aldenor, Xian, Huang, Hillamo, Risto, Alves, Célia A., Bittencourt de Andrade, Jailson, Olímpio da Rocha, Gisele, Kumar, Prashant , Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar, de Fátima Andrade, Maria and de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola (2017) Airborne particles in the Brazilian city of São Paulo: One-year investigation for the chemical composition and source apportionment Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. pp. 1-36.

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Abstract

São Paulo in Brazil has relatively relaxed regulations for ambient air pollution standards and often experiences high air pollution levels due to emissions of airborne particles from local sources and long-range transport of biomass burning-impacted air masses. In order to evaluate the sources of particulate air pollution (PM) and related health risks, a year-round sampling was performed for PM2.5 (≤ 2.5 μm) and PM10 (≤ 10 μm) in 2014 through intensive (every day sampling in wintertime) and extensive campaigns (once a week for the whole year) with 24 h of sampling. This year was characterized to have lower average precipitation comparing to meteorological data, and high pollution episodes were observed all year round, with a significant increase of pollution level in the intensive campaign, which was performed during wintertime. Different chemical constituents, such as carbonaceous species, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives, water-soluble ions and biomass burning tracers were identified in order to evaluate health risks and to apportion sources. The species such as PAHs, inorganic and organic ions and monosaccharides were determined by chromatographic techniques and carbonaceous species by thermal-optical analysis. The associated risks to particulate matter exposure based on PAH concentrations were also assessed, along with indexes such as the benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPE) and lung cancer risk (LCR). High BaPE and LCR were observed in most of the samples, rising to critical values in the wintertime. Also, biomass burning tracers and PAHs were higher in this season, while secondarily formed ions presented low variation throughout the year. Meanwhile, vehicular tracer species were also higher in the intensive campaign suggesting the influence of lower dispersion conditions in that period. Source apportionment was done by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), which indicated five different factors: road dust, industrial emissions, vehicular exhaust, biomass burning and secondary processes. The results highlighted the contribution of vehicular emissions and the significant input from biomass combustion in wintertime, suggesting that most of the particulate matter is due to local sources, besides the influence of pre-harvest sugarcane burning.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Martins Pereira, GuilhermeUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Teinilä, KimmoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Custódio, DaniloUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gomes Santos, AldenorUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Xian, HuangUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hillamo, RistoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alves, Célia A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bittencourt de Andrade, JailsonUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Olímpio da Rocha, GiseleUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Balasubramanian, RajasekharUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
de Fátima Andrade, MariaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
de Castro Vasconcellos, PérolaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 2017
Identification Number : 10.5194/acp-2017-317
Copyright Disclaimer : © Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Depositing User : Clive Harris
Date Deposited : 30 Aug 2017 14:57
Last Modified : 30 Aug 2017 14:57
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/842087

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