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Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water — A case study

Bond, T, Huang, J, Graham, JD and Templeton, MR (2014) Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water — A case study Science of The Total Environment, 470-47. pp. 469-479.

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Abstract

During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L− 1), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L− 1). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Civil Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Bond, Tt.bond@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Huang, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Graham, JDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Templeton, MRUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : February 2014
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.106
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Uncontrolled Keywords : Natural organic matter, Trihalomethanes, Haloacetic acids, Dihaloacetic acids, Trihaloacetic acids, Bromine
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 17 May 2017 13:57
Last Modified : 18 May 2017 12:54
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/840983

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