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Occurrence and control of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water – A review

Bond, T, Huang, J, Templeton, MR and Graham, N (2011) Occurrence and control of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water – A review Water Research, 45 (15). pp. 4341-4354.

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Abstract

The presence of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), including nitrosamines, cyanogen halides, haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides and halonitromethanes, in drinking water is of concern due to their high genotoxicity and cytotoxicity compared with regulated DBPs. Occurrence of N-DBPs is likely to increase if water sources become impacted by wastewater and algae. Moreover, a shift from chlorination to chloramination, an option for water providers wanting to reduce regulated DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), can also increase certain N-DBPs. This paper provides a critical review of the occurrence and control of N-DBPs. Data collated from surveys undertaken in the United States and Scotland were used to calculate that the sum of analysed halonitromethanes represented 3–4% of the mass of THMs on a median basis; with Pearson product moment correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.83 between formation of dihaloacetonitriles and that of THMs and HAAs respectively. The impact of water treatment processes on N-DBP formation is complex and variable. While coagulation and filtration are of moderate efficacy for the removal of N-DBP precursors, such as amino acids and amines, biofiltration, if used prior to disinfection, is particularly successful at removing cyanogen halide precursors. Oxidation before final disinfection can increase halonitromethane formation and decrease N-nitrosodimethylamine, and chloramination is likely to increase cyanogen halides and NDMA relative to chlorination.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Civil Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Bond, Tt.bond@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Huang, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Templeton, MRUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Graham, NUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 October 2011
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.watres.2011.05.034
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 17 May 2017 13:57
Last Modified : 18 May 2017 12:53
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/840972

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