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Determination of the thermal and physical properties of black tattoo ink using compound analysis

Humphries, A, Lister, TS, Wright, PA and Hughes, MP (2013) Determination of the thermal and physical properties of black tattoo ink using compound analysis Lasers in Medical Science, 28 (4). pp. 1107-1112.

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Abstract

Despite the widespread use of laser therapy in the removal of tattoos, comparatively little is known about its mechanism of action. There is a need for an improved understanding of the composition and thermal properties of the tattoo ink in order that simulations of laser therapy may be better informed and treatment parameters optimised. Scanning electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry identified that the relative proportions of the constituent compounds of the ink likely to exist in vivo are the following: carbon black pigment (89 %), carvacrol (5 %), eugenol (2 %), hexenol (3 %) and propylene glycol (1 %). Chemical compound property tables identify that changes in phase of these compounds lead to a considerable reduction in the density and thermal conductivity of the ink and an increase in its specific heat as temperature increases. These temperature-dependent values of density, thermal conductivity and specific heat are substantially different to the constant values, derived from water or graphite at a fixed temperature, which have been applied in the simulations of laser therapy as previously described in the literature. Accordingly, the thermal properties of black tattoo ink described in this study provide valuable information that may be used to improve simulations of tattoo laser therapy. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Humphries, AUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lister, TSUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wright, PAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hughes, MPm.hughes@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 July 2013
Identification Number : 10.1007/s10103-012-1198-9
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 17 May 2017 12:54
Last Modified : 17 May 2017 15:06
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/837210

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