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Developmental changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Bollmann, S, Ghisleni, C, Poil, SS, Martin, E, Ball, J, Eich-Höchli, D, Edden, RA, Klaver, P, Michels, L, Brandeis, D and O'Gorman, RL (2015) Developmental changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Transl Psychiatry, 5.

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Abstract

While the neurobiological basis and developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not yet been fully established, an imbalance between inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmitters is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. This study examined the changes in cerebral levels of GABA+, glutamate and glutamine in children and adults with ADHD using edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We studied 89 participants (16 children with ADHD, 19 control children, 16 adults with ADHD and 38 control adults) in a subcortical voxel (children and adults) and a frontal voxel (adults only). ADHD adults showed increased GABA+ levels relative to controls (P = 0.048), while ADHD children showed no difference in GABA+ in the subcortical voxel (P > 0.1), resulting in a significant age by disorder interaction (P = 0.026). Co-varying for age in an analysis of covariance model resulted in a nonsignificant age by disorder interaction (P = 0.06). Glutamine levels were increased in children with ADHD (P = 0.041), but there was no significant difference in adults (P > 0.1). Glutamate showed no difference between controls and ADHD patients but demonstrated a strong effect of age across both groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with ADHD show altered levels of GABA+ in a subcortical voxel which change with development. Further, we found increased glutamine levels in children with ADHD, but this difference normalized in adults. These observed imbalances in neurotransmitter levels are associated with ADHD symptomatology and lend new insight in the developmental trajectory and pathophysiology of ADHD.

Item Type: Article
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Bollmann, SUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ghisleni, CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Poil, SSUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Martin, EUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ball, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Eich-Höchli, DUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Edden, RAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Klaver, Pp.klaver@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Michels, LUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Brandeis, DUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
O'Gorman, RLUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 2015
Identification Number : https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2015.79
Uncontrolled Keywords : Adolescent, Adolescent Development, Adult, Age Factors, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Brain, Case-Control Studies, Child, Child Development, Female, Frontal Lobe, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Gray Matter, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Male, Middle Aged, Young Adult, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 17 May 2017 10:39
Last Modified : 17 May 2017 14:51
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/828691

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