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In a bovine model of onchocerciasis, protective immunity exists naturally, is absent in drug-cured hosts, and is induced by vaccination.

Tchakouté, VL, Graham, SP, Jensen, SA, Makepeace, BL, Nfon, CK, Njongmeta, LM, Lustigman, S, Enyong, PA, Tanya, VN, Bianco, AE and Trees, AJ (2006) In a bovine model of onchocerciasis, protective immunity exists naturally, is absent in drug-cured hosts, and is induced by vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103 (15). pp. 5971-5976.

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Abstract

Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major parasitic disease of humans in sub-Saharan Africa caused by the microfilarial stage of the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Using Onchocerca ochengi, a closely related species which infects cattle and is transmitted by the same black fly vector (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) as O. volvulus, we have conducted longitudinal studies after either natural field exposure or experimental infection to determine whether, and under what circumstances, protective immunity exists in onchocerciasis. On the basis of the adult worm burdens (nodules) observed, we determined that cattle reared in endemic areas without detectable parasites (putatively immune) were significantly less susceptible to heavy field challenge than age-matched, naïve controls (P = 0.002), whereas patently infected cattle, cured of infection by adulticide treatment with melarsomine, were fully susceptible. Cattle immunized with irradiated third-stage larvae were significantly protected against experimental challenge (100% reduction in median nodule load, P = 0.003), and vaccination also conferred resistance to severe and prolonged field challenge (64% reduction in median nodule load, P = 0.053; and a significant reduction in microfilarial positivity rates and density, P < 0.05). These results constitute evidence of protective immunity in a naturally evolved host-Onchocerca sp. relationship and provide proof-of-principle for immunoprophylaxis under experimental and field conditions.

Item Type: Article
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Tchakouté, VLUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Graham, SPs.graham@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Jensen, SAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Makepeace, BLUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nfon, CKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Njongmeta, LMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lustigman, SUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Enyong, PAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tanya, VNUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bianco, AEUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Trees, AJUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 11 April 2006
Identification Number : 10.1073/pnas.0601385103
Uncontrolled Keywords : Animals, Anthelmintics, Cattle, Cattle Diseases, Disease Models, Animal, Onchocerca, Onchocerciasis, Prevalence, Vaccines
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 17 May 2017 10:22
Last Modified : 17 May 2017 14:49
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/827512

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