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Meal Timing Regulates the Human Circadian System

Wehrens, Sophie, Christou, Skevoulla, Isherwood, Cheryl, Middleton, Benita, Gibbs, Michelle, Archer, Simon, Skene, Debra and Johnston, Jonathan (2017) Meal Timing Regulates the Human Circadian System Current Biology, 27 (12). 1768-1775e3.

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Abstract

Circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition are intimately linked [1, 2], although effects of meal timing on the human circadian system are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of a 5-hour delay in meals on markers of the human master clock and multiple peripheral circadian rhythms. Ten healthy young men undertook a 13-day laboratory protocol. Three meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) were given at 5-hour intervals, beginning either 0.5 (early) or 5.5 (late) hours after wake. Participants were acclimated to early meals and then switched to late meals for 6 days. After each meal schedule, participants' circadian rhythms were measured in a 37-hour constant routine that removes sleep and environmental rhythms while replacing meals with hourly isocaloric snacks. Meal timing did not alter actigraphic sleep parameters before circadian rhythm measurement. In constant routines, meal timing did not affect rhythms of subjective hunger and sleepiness, master clock markers (plasma melatonin and cortisol), plasma triglycerides, or clock gene expression in whole blood. Following late meals, however, plasma glucose rhythms were delayed by 5.69 ± 1.29 hours (p < 0.001) and average glucose concentration decreased by 0.27 ± 0.05 mM (p < 0.001). In adipose tissue, PER2 mRNA rhythms were delayed by 0.97 ± 0.29 hours (p < 0.01), indicating that human molecular clocks may be regulated by feeding time and could underpin plasma glucose changes. Timed meals therefore play a role in synchronising peripheral circadian rhythms in humans, and may have particular relevance for patients with circadian rhythm disorders, shift workers, and transmeridian travellers.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Biosciences and Medicine
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Biosciences and Medicine
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Wehrens, SophieSophie.Wehrens@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Christou, Skevoullas.christou@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Isherwood, Cherylc.m.isherwood@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Middleton, BenitaB.Middleton@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Gibbs, MichelleUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Archer, SimonSimon.Archer@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Skene, DebraD.Skene@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Johnston, JonathanJ.Johnston@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 June 2017
Funders : BBSRC
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.059
Copyright Disclaimer : Copyright 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Uncontrolled Keywords : : chrononutrition, clock gene, peripheral clocks, white adipose tissue, shift work, jet lag, glucose homeostasis, food timing, meal timing, actigraphy
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 05 May 2017 14:19
Last Modified : 12 Jul 2017 09:32
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/814115

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