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Air quality in the megacity of São Paulo: evolution over the last 30 years and future perspectives

Andrade, M, Kumar, Prashant, de Freitas, ED, Ynoue, RY, Martins, J, Martins, LD, Nogueira, T, Perez-Martinez, P, de Miranda, RM, Albuquerque, T, Gonçalves, FLT, Oyama, B and Zhang, Y (2017) Air quality in the megacity of São Paulo: evolution over the last 30 years and future perspectives Atmospheric Environment, 159. pp. 66-82.

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Abstract

We present a comprehensive review of published results from the last 30 years regarding the sources and atmospheric characteristics of particles and ozone in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). During the last 30 years, many efforts have been made to describe the emissions sources and to analyse the primary and secondary formation of pollutants under a process of increasing urbanisation in the metropolitan area. From the occurrence of frequent violations of air quality standards in the 1970s and 1980s (due to the uncontrolled air pollution sources) to a substantial decrease in the concentrations of the primary pollutants, many regulations have been imposed and enforced, although those concentrations do not yet conform to the World Health Organization guidelines. The greatest challenge currently faced by the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency and the local community is controlling secondary pollutants such as ozone and fine particles. Understanding the formation of these secondary pollutants, by experimental or modelling approaches, requires the description of the atmospheric chemical processes driven by biofuel, ethanol and biodiesel emissions. Exposure to air pollution is the cause of many injuries to human health, according to many studies performed not only in the region but also worldwide, and affects susceptible populations such as children and the elderly. The MASP is the biggest megacity in the Southern Hemisphere, and its specifics are important for other urban areas that are facing the challenge of intensive growth that puts pressure on natural resources and worsens the living conditions in urban areas. This text discusses how imposing regulations on air quality and emission sources, mainly related to the transportation sector, has affected the evolution of pollutant concentrations in the MASP.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Civil & Environmental Engineering
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Andrade, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
de Freitas, EDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ynoue, RYUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Martins, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Martins, LDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nogueira, TUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Perez-Martinez, PUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
de Miranda, RMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Albuquerque, TUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gonçalves, FLTUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Oyama, BUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Zhang, YUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 31 March 2017
Identification Number : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.03.051
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Emissions; F
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 31 Mar 2017 15:53
Last Modified : 04 Jul 2017 16:34
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813910

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