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Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk

Chu, W, Li, X, Bond, Thomas, Gao, N, Bin, X, Wang, Q and Ding, S (2016) Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk Water Research, 107. pp. 141-150.

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Abstract

The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm).

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Civil & Environmental Engineering
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Chu, WUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Li, XUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bond, Thomast.bond@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Gao, NUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bin, XUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wang, QUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ding, SUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 19 October 2016
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.watres.2016.10.047
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Disinfection byproducts; Haloacetamides; Dechlorination; Zero-valent iron/copper; Integrated toxicity risk; Drinking water
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 14 Mar 2017 18:54
Last Modified : 19 Oct 2017 02:08
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813777

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