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Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation

Knowler, Susan, Kiviranta, A-M, McFadyen, AK, Jokinen, TS, La Ragione, Roberto and Rusbridge, Clare (2017) Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation PLoS One, 12 (1), e0169898.

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Abstract

Objectives:To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Method Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. Results The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001). Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i) `sphenoid flexure' at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii) `cervical flexure' at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001); Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009); CKCS had a shorter distance between the sphenooccipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007). Conclusion The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Veterinary Medicine
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Knowler, Susans.knowler@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Kiviranta, A-MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
McFadyen, AKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jokinen, TSUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
La Ragione, RobertoR.Laragione@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Rusbridge, Clarec.rusbridge@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 25 January 2017
Identification Number : 10.1371/journal.pone.0169898
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017 Knowler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 15 Feb 2017 17:31
Last Modified : 05 Dec 2017 14:02
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813560

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