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Use of Morphometric Mapping to Characterise Symptomatic Chiari-Like Malformation, Secondary Syringomyelia and Associated Brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Knowler, Susan, Cross, C, Griffiths, S, McFadyen, AK, Jovanovik, J, Tauro, A, Kibar, Z, Driver, KJ, La Ragione, Roberto and Rusbridge, Clare (2017) Use of Morphometric Mapping to Characterise Symptomatic Chiari-Like Malformation, Secondary Syringomyelia and Associated Brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel PLoS One, 12 (1), e0170315.

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Abstract

Objectives To characterise the symptomatic phenotype of Chiari-like malformation (CM), secondary syringomyelia (SM) and brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel using morphometric measurements on mid-sagittal Magnetic Resonance images (MRI) of the brain and craniocervical junction. Methods This retrospective study, based on a previous quantitative analysis in the Griffon Bruxellois (GB), used 24 measurements taken on 130 T1-weighted MRI of hindbrain and cervical region. Associated brachycephaly was estimated using 26 measurements, including rostral forebrain flattening and olfactory lobe rotation, on 72 T2-weighted MRI of the whole brain. Both study cohorts were divided into three groups; Control, CM pain and SM and their morphometries compared with each other. Results Fourteen significant traits were identified in the hindbrain study and nine traits in the whole brain study, six of which were similar to the GB and suggest a common aetiology. The Control cohort had the most elliptical brain (p = 0.010), least olfactory bulb rotation (p = 0.003) and a protective angle (p = 0.004) compared to the other groups. The CM pain cohort had the greatest rostral forebrain flattening (p = 0.007), shortest basioccipital (p = 0.019), but a greater distance between the atlas and basioccipital (p = 0.002) which was protective for SM. The SM cohort had two conformation anomalies depending on the severity of craniocervical junction incongruities; i) the proximity of the dens (p <0.001) ii) increased airorhynchy with a smaller, more ventrally rotated olfactory bulb (p <0.001). Both generated `concertina' flexures of the brain and craniocervical junction. Conclusion Morphometric mapping provides a diagnostic tool for quantifying symptomatic CM, secondary SM and their relationship with brachycephaly. It is hypothesized that CM pain is associated with increased brachycephaly and SM can result from different combinations of abnormalities of the forebrain, caudal fossa and craniocervical junction which compromise the neural parenchyma and impede cerebrospinal fluid flow.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Veterinary Medicine
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Knowler, Susans.knowler@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Cross, CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Griffiths, SUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
McFadyen, AKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jovanovik, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tauro, AUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kibar, ZUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Driver, KJUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
La Ragione, RobertoR.Laragione@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Rusbridge, Clarec.rusbridge@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 25 January 2017
Identification Number : 10.1371/journal.pone.0170315
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017 Knowler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 15 Feb 2017 17:24
Last Modified : 19 Jul 2017 10:41
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813559

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