University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

Exposure of in-pram babies to airborne particles during morning drop-in and afternoon pick-up of school children

Kumar, Prashant, Rivas, I and Sachdeva, L (2017) Exposure of in-pram babies to airborne particles during morning drop-in and afternoon pick-up of school children Environmental Pollution, 224. pp. 407-420.

[img] Text
Baby Exposure_Accepted Version.pdf - Accepted version Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only until 6 March 2018.
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (1MB)
[img]
Preview
Text (licence)
SRI_deposit_agreement.pdf
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (33kB) | Preview

Abstract

In-pram babies are more susceptible to air pollution effects, yet studies assessing their exposure are limited. We measured size-resolved particle mass (PMC; 0.25-32 μm) and number (PNC; 0.2–1 μm) concentrations on a 2.7 km route. The instruments were placed inside a baby pram. The route passed through 4 traffic intersections (TIs) and a bus stand. A total of ~87 km road length was covered through 64 trips, made during school drop-in (morning) and pick-up (afternoon) hours. The objectives were to assess PMC and PNC exposure to in-pram babies at different route segments, understand their physicochemical characteristics and exposure differences between in-pram babies and adults carrying them. Over 5-fold variability (14.1–78.2 μg m-3) was observed in PMCs. Small-sized particles, including ultrafine particles, were always higher by 66% (PM1), 29% (PM2.5) and 31% (PNC) during the morning than afternoon. Coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showed an opposite trend with 70% higher concentration during afternoon than morning. TIs emerged as pollution hotspots for all the particle types. For example, PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PNCs during the morning (afternoon) at TIs were 7 (10)%, 19 (10)% and 68 (62)% higher, respectively, compared with the rest of the route. Bus stand was also a section of enhanced exposure to PNC and PM2.5, although not so much for PM2.5-10. EDX analyses revealed Cl, Na and Fe as dominant elements. Road salt might be a source of NaCl due to de-icing during the measurements while Fe contributed by non-exhaust emissions from brake abrasion. The respiratory deposition rates imitated the trend of PMC, with higher doses of coarse and fine particles during the afternoon and morning runs, respectively. Special protection measures during conveyance of in-pram babies, especially at pollution hotspots such as traffic intersections and bus stands, could help to limit their exposure.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Civil & Environmental Engineering
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Rivas, IUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sachdeva, LUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 6 March 2017
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.021
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Children exposure; Baby pram; Particulate matter; Fine particles; Ultrafine particles
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 15 Feb 2017 09:30
Last Modified : 19 Jul 2017 10:27
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813546

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year


Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800