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A review of emissions and concentrations of particulate matter in the three metropolitan areas of Brazil

Pacheco, M, Parmigiani, M, Andrade, M, Morawska, L and Kumar, Prashant (2017) A review of emissions and concentrations of particulate matter in the three metropolitan areas of Brazil Journal of Transport & Health, 4. pp. 53-72.

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Abstract

We critically assessed numerous aspects such as vehicle fleet, type of fuel used in road vehicles, their emissions and concentrations of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) in three of the most polluted metropolitan areas of Brazil: the Metropolitan areas of São Paulo (MASP), Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) and Belo Horizonte (MABH). About 90% of the Brazilian LDVs run on ethanol or gasohol. The HDVs form a relatively low fraction of the total fleet but account for 90% of the PM from road vehicles. Brazilian LDVs normally emit 0.0011g (PM) km-1 but HDVs can surpass 0.0120g (PM) km-1. The emission control programs (e.g., PROCONVE) have been successful in reducing the vehicular exhaust emissions, but the non-exhaust vehicular sources such, as evaporative losses during refueling of vehicles as well as wear from the tyre, break, and road surface have increased in line with the increase in the vehicle fleet. The national inventories show the highest annual mean PM2.5 (28.1μg m–3) in the MASP that has the largest vehicle fleet in the country. In general, the PM10 concentrations in the studied metropolitan areas appear to comply with the national regulations but were up to ~3-times above the WHO guidelines. The current Brazilian air quality standards are far behind the European standards. There has been a progress in bringing more restrictive regulations for air pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5 but such steps also require suitable solutions to control PM emissions from motor vehicles and mechanical processes.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Civil & Environmental Engineering
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Pacheco, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Parmigiani, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Andrade, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Morawska, LUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kumar, PrashantP.Kumar@surrey.ac.ukUNSPECIFIED
Date : 31 January 2017
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.jth.2017.01.008
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords : Particulate matter; Vehicular emissions; PM concentrations; Air quality standards; Brazilian metropolitan areas
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 18 Jan 2017 17:45
Last Modified : 07 Jul 2017 10:44
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/813332

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