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Effects of Ambient Humidity on the Optimum Annealing Time of Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

Cronin, HM, Imalka Jayawardena, KDG, Stoeva, Z, Shkunov, M and Silva, SRP (2016) Effects of Ambient Humidity on the Optimum Annealing Time of Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells Nanotechnology.

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Abstract

Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx Perovskite solar cells with active area ≈1 cm2. We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance depends relatively weakly on annealing time, but at higher (30 - 40% RH) or lower (0 - 15 % RH) humidities it is very sensitive. Processing in humid environments is shown to lead to the growth of both larger Perovskite grains and larger voids; similar to the effect of thermal annealing, which also leads to grain growth. Therefore, samples which are annealed for too long under high humidity show loss of performance due to low open circuit voltage caused by an increased number of shunt paths. Based on these results it is clear that humidity and annealing time are closely interrelated and both are important factors affecting the performance of Perovskite solar cells. The findings of this work opens a route for reduced annealing times to be employed by control of humidity; critical in roll-to-roll manufacture where low manufacturing time is preferred for cost reductions.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Mechanical Engineering
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering Sciences
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Cronin, HMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Imalka Jayawardena, KDGUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stoeva, ZUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Shkunov, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Silva, SRPUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 2016
Funders : EPSRC
Grant Title : University of Surrey’s Centre for Doctoral Training in MiNMaT
Copyright Disclaimer : This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication/published in Nanotechnology. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record will be available online at http://iopscience.iop.org/journal/0957-4484
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 30 Nov 2016 09:24
Last Modified : 31 Oct 2017 18:58
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/812996

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