University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes

Wang, Lianqin, Magliocca, E, Cunningham, E, Mustain, W, Poynton, S, Escudero-Cid, R, Nasef, M, Ponce-Gonzalez, J, Bance-Souahli, R, Slade, Robert , Whelligan, Daniel and Varcoe, John (2016) An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes Green Chemistry, 19. pp. 831-843.

[img]
Preview
Text
Green Chem vol19 p831-843 (2017).pdf - Version of Record

Download (4MB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
Text (licence)
SRI_deposit_agreement.pdf
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (33kB) | Preview
[img] Text
ACCEPTED ARTICLE.pdf - Accepted version Manuscript
Restricted to Repository staff only
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (5MB)

Abstract

High performance benzyltrimethylammonium-type alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AEM), for application in electrochemical devices such as anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC), were prepared by the radiation grafting (RG) of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) onto 25 μm thick poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films followed by amination with trimethylamine. Reductions in electron-beam absorbed dose and amount of expensive, potentially hazardous VBC were achieved by using water as a diluent (reduced to 30 – 40 kGy absorbed dose and 5%vol VBC) instead of the prior-art method that used organic propan-2-ol diluent (required 70 kGy dose and 20%vol VBC monomer). Furthermore, the water from the aqueous grafting mixture was easily separated from residual monomer (after cooling) and was reused for a further grafting reaction: the resulting AEM exhibited an ion-exchange capacity of 2.1 mmol g-1 (cf. 2.1 mmol g-1 for the AEM made using fresh grafting mixture). The lower irradiation doses resulted in mechanically stronger RG-AEMs compared to the reference RG-AEM synthesised using the prior-art method. A further positive off-shoot of the optimisation process was the discovery that using water as a diluent resulted in an enhanced (i.e. more uniform) distribution of VBC grafts as proven by Raman microscopy and corroborated using EDX analysis: this led to enhancement in the Cl- anion-conductivities (up to 68 mS cm-1 at 80°C for the optimised fully hydrated RG-AEMs vs. 48 mS cm-1 for the prior-art RG-AEM reference). A down-selected RG-AEM of ion-exchange capacity = 2.0 mmol g-1, that was synthesised using the new greener protocol with 30 kGy electron-beam absorbed dose, led to an exceptional beginning-of-life H2/O2 AEMFC peak power density of 1.16 W cm−2 at 60°C in a benchmark test using industrial standard Pt-based electrocatalysts and unpressurised gas supplies: this was higher than the 0.91 W cm-1 obtained with the reference RG-AEM (IEC = 1.8 mmol g-1) synthesised using the prior-art protocol.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Chemistry
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemistry
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Wang, Lianqinlianqin.wang@surrey.ac.uk
Magliocca, E
Cunningham, E
Mustain, W
Poynton, S
Escudero-Cid, R
Nasef, M
Ponce-Gonzalez, J
Bance-Souahli, R
Slade, RobertR.Slade@surrey.ac.uk
Whelligan, DanielD.Whelligan@surrey.ac.uk
Varcoe, JohnJ.Varcoe@surrey.ac.uk
Date : 23 November 2016
Funders : EPSRC
Identification Number : 10.1039/C6GC02526A
Copyright Disclaimer : CC - BY This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 28 Nov 2016 13:15
Last Modified : 14 Mar 2018 15:59
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/812946

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year


Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800