University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III and IV

Brunt, J, van Vliet, AH, van den Bos, F, Carter, AT and Peck, MW (2016) Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III and IV Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1702.

[img]
Preview
Text
fmicb-07-01702.pdf - Version of Record
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (1MB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
Text (licence)
SRI_deposit_agreement.pdf
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (33kB) | Preview

Abstract

Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favorable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in spore germination. Here we present models for spore germination in C. botulinum based on comparative genomics analyses, with C. botulinum Groups I and III sharing similar pathways, which differ from those proposed for C. botulinum Groups II and IV. All spores germinate in response to amino acids interacting with a germinant receptor, with four types of germinant receptor identified [encoded by various combinations of gerA, gerB, and gerC genes (gerX)]. There are three gene clusters with an ABC-like configuration; ABC [gerX1], ABABCB [gerX2] and ACxBBB [gerX4], and a single CA-B [gerX3] gene cluster. Subtypes have been identified for most germinant receptor types, and the individual GerX subunits of each cluster show similar grouping in phylogenetic trees. C. botulinum Group I contained the largest variety of gerX subtypes, with three gerX1, three gerX2, and one gerX3 subtypes, while C. botulinum Group III contained two gerX1 types and one gerX4. C. botulinum Groups II and IV contained a single germinant receptor, gerX3 and gerX1, respectively. It is likely that all four C. botulinum Groups include a SpoVA channel involved in dipicolinic acid release. The cortex-lytic enzymes present in C. botulinum Groups I and III appear to be CwlJ and SleB, while in C. botulinum Groups II and IV, SleC appears to be important.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Veterinary Medicine
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Brunt, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
van Vliet, AHUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
van den Bos, FUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Carter, ATUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Peck, MWUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 28 October 2016
Identification Number : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01702
Copyright Disclaimer : Copyright © 2016 Brunt, van Vliet, van den Bos, Carter and Peck. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 28 Oct 2016 09:41
Last Modified : 17 Nov 2016 12:11
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/812659

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year


Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800