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Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism

Shojaee-Moradie, F, Baynes, KC, Pentecost, C, Bell, JD, Thomas, EL, Jackson, NC, Stolinski, M, Whyte, M, Lovell, D, Bowes, SB , Gibney, J, Jones, RH and Umpleby, AM (2007) Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism Diabetologia, 50 (2). pp. 404-413.

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Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is not known whether the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity are due to changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity or whether the changes in insulin sensitivity can be explained by adaptive changes in fatty acid metabolism, changes in visceral fat or changes in liver and muscle triacylglycerol content. We investigated the effects of 6 weeks of supervised exercise in sedentary men on these variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We randomised 17 sedentary overweight male subjects (age 50 +/- 2.6 years, BMI 27.6 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2)) to a 6-week exercise programme (n = 10) or control group (n = 7). The insulin sensitivity of palmitic acid production rate (Ra), glycerol Ra, endogenous glucose Ra (EGP), glucose uptake and glucose metabolic clearance rate were measured at 0 and 6 weeks with a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp [step 1, 0.3 (low dose); step 2, 1.5 (high dose) mU kg(-1) min(-1)]. In the exercise group subjects were studied >72 h after the last training session. Liver and skeletal muscle triacylglycerol content was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and visceral adipose tissue by cross-sectional computer tomography scanning. RESULTS: After 6 weeks, fasting glycerol, palmitic acid Ra (p = 0.003, p = 0.042) and NEFA concentration (p = 0.005) were decreased in the exercise group with no change in the control group. The effects of low-dose insulin on EGP and of high-dose insulin on glucose uptake and metabolic clearance rate were enhanced in the exercise group but not in the control group (p = 0.026; p = 0.007 and p = 0.04). There was no change in muscle triacylglycerol and liver fat in either group. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Decreased availability of circulating NEFA may contribute to the observed improvement in the insulin sensitivity of EGP and glucose uptake following 6 weeks of moderate exercise.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Nutrition
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Biosciences and Medicine > Department of Nutritional Sciences
Authors :
NameEmailORCID
Shojaee-Moradie, FUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Baynes, KCUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pentecost, CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bell, JDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, ELUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jackson, NCUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stolinski, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Whyte, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lovell, DUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bowes, SBUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gibney, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jones, RHUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Umpleby, AMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : February 2007
Identification Number : 10.1007/s00125-006-0498-7
Copyright Disclaimer : © Springer-Verlag 2006
Uncontrolled Keywords : Humans, Insulin, Blood Glucose, Fatty Acids, Fatty Acids, Nonesterified, Palmitic Acid, Body Mass Index, Glucose Clamp Technique, Exercise, Life Style, Middle Aged, Male, Overweight
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 18 Oct 2016 13:27
Last Modified : 31 Oct 2017 18:48
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/812485

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