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Size–segregated particulate matter inside residences of elderly in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

Segalin, B, Kumar, P, Micadei, K, Fornaro, A and Gonçalves, FLT (2016) Size–segregated particulate matter inside residences of elderly in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil Atmospheric Environment.

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Abstract

The elderly population spend relatively more time indoors and is more sensitive to air pollution–related health risks but there is limited information on the quality of the air they breathe inside their residences. The objectives of this work are to (i) characterise mass of size–segregated particulate matter (PM) in elderly residences in Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP) in Brazil, (ii) assess the impact of the meteorological parameters on the behaviour of indoor PM concentrations, (iii) evaluate the indoor and outdoor relationship of PM mass concentration, and (iv) estimate the respiratory deposition doses (RDD). To achieve these objectives, we measured mass concentrations of size–segregated particles in 59 elderly residences in MASP. The measurements were made in the 0.25–10 μm size range in 5 size bins using a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler. We evaluated the mass concentration of particles using a gravimetric method and compared our PM10 (sum of all size bins) and PM2.5 (sum of all size bins, except PM10–2.5) concentrations against the 24 h mean guidelines recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Our results show the mean PM10 and PM2.5 measured in elderly residences in MASP as 35.2 and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively. PM2.5 and PM<0.25 (particles with aerodynamic diameter of less than 0.25 μm) contributed 78% and 38% of total PM10, respectively, clearly suggesting a significantly high exposure to fine particles by the elderly. About 13 and 43% of the measurements exceeded the WHO's PM10 and PM2.5 guidelines, respectively. The samples were clustered into five groups to found the behaviour of indoor PM. The cluster representing the residences with higher PM concentration in all size bins are predominantly residences near the heavy traffic areas during the non–precipitation days. About 68% of residences showed the highest fraction of PM<0.25, indicating a high concentration of ultrafine particles in these residences. We calculated indoor/outdoor (I/O) rates and found them as 1.89 and 1.06 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. About 77% and 40% of the residences had higher PM2.5 and PM10 indoors than those in outdoor environments. During seated position, the RDD rates for coarse and fine particles for male elderly were found to be about 20% and 25% higher compared with female elderly, respectively. Our findings suggest a control of indoor sources in the elderly residences to limit adverse health effects of particulate matter, especially fine particles, on elderly.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Environmental Engineering
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Segalin, BUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kumar, PUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Micadei, KUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fornaro, AUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gonçalves, FLTUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 5 October 2016
Identification Number : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.10.004
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2016. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 14 Oct 2016 13:36
Last Modified : 14 Oct 2016 13:36
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/812445

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