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Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

Livingstone, C (2015) Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 30 (3). pp. 371-382.

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Abstract

The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Medical Science
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Biosciences and Medicine
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Livingstone, CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : June 2015
Identification Number : 10.1177/0884533615570376
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Uncontrolled Keywords : deficiency, nutrition, total parenteral nutrition, zinc, Biomarkers, Dietary Supplements, Humans, Nutrition Policy, Nutritional Requirements, Nutritional Status, Parenteral Nutrition, Zinc
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 01 Sep 2016 07:39
Last Modified : 01 Sep 2016 07:39
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/811938

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