University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK.

Cox, R, Proudman, CJ, Trawford, AF, Burden, F and Pinchbeck, GL (2007) Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK. BMC Vet Res, 3.

Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK..pdf - Accepted version Manuscript
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (302kB) | Preview
PDF (licence)
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (33kB) | Preview


BACKGROUND: Colic (abdominal pain) is a clinical condition of serious concern affecting the welfare and survival of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary in the UK. One of the most commonly reported causes is due to impacted ingesta in the large intestine ("impaction colic"). However little is known about the incidence of, or risk factors for, this condition. Here we describe the epidemiology of colic in donkeys, specifically impaction colic. We focus on temporal aspects of the disease and we identify environmental and management related risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys. RESULTS: There were 807 colic episodes in the population of 4596 donkeys between January 1st 2000 and March 31st 2005. The majority (54.8%) of episodes were due to a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of impaction of the gastrointestinal tract. The mortality risk for all colics (51.1%) was higher than reported in other equids. The incidence rate of all colics (5.9 episodes per 100 donkeys per year) and of impaction colic (3.2 episodes) was similar to that in horses. A retrospective matched case-control study of all impaction colics from January 2003 (193) indicated that older donkeys, those fed extra rations and those that previously suffered colic were at increased risk of impaction. Lighter body weight, musculo-skeletal problems, farm and dental disease were also significantly associated with a diagnosis of impaction colic. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first study to estimate the incidence rate of colic in a large population of donkeys in the UK. In contrast to other equids, impaction was the most commonly reported cause of colic. We identified several risk factors for impaction colic. Increasing age, extra rations and previous colic are known risk factors for colic in other equids. Results support the hypothesis that dental disease is associated with impaction colic. Musculo-skeletal problems may be associated with colic for various reasons including change in amount of exercise or time at pasture. Other associated factors (weight and farm) are the subject of further research. Identification of risk factors for impaction colic may highlight high risk donkeys and may allow intervention strategies to be introduced to reduce the incidence of the disease.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : Veterinary Medicine
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Authors :
Date : 2007
Identification Number : 10.1186/1746-6148-3-1
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2007 Cox et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords : Aging, Animals, Case-Control Studies, Colic, Equidae, Fecal Impaction, Great Britain, Incidence, Retrospective Studies, Seasons, Stomatognathic Diseases, Time Factors
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 09 Aug 2016 16:31
Last Modified : 09 Aug 2016 16:31

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800