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Geographic-Based Spray-and-Relay (GSaR): An efficient routing scheme for DTNs

Cao, Y, Sun, Z, Wang, N, Riaz, M, Cruickshank, H and Liu, X (2015) Geographic-Based Spray-and-Relay (GSaR): An efficient routing scheme for DTNs IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 64 (4). pp. 1548-1564.

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Abstract

In this paper, we design and evaluate the proposed geographic-based spray-and-relay (GSaR) routing scheme in delay/disruption-tolerant networks. To the best of our knowledge, GSaR is the first spray-based geographic routing scheme using historical geographic information for making a routing decision. Here, the term spray means that only a limited number of message copies are allowed for replication in the network. By estimating a movement range of destination via the historical geographic information, GSaR expedites the message being sprayed toward this range, meanwhile prevents that away from and postpones that out of this range. As such, the combination of them intends to fast and efficiently spray the limited number of message copies toward this range and effectively spray them within range, to reduce the delivery delay and increase the delivery ratio. Furthermore, GSaR exploits delegation forwarding to enhance the reliability of the routing decision and handle the local maximum problem, which is considered to be the challenges for applying the geographic routing scheme in sparse networks. We evaluate GSaR under three city scenarios abstracted from real world, with other routing schemes for comparison. Results show that GSaR is reliable for delivering messages before the expiration deadline and efficient for achieving low routing overhead ratio. Further observation indicates that GSaR is also efficient in terms of a low and fair energy consumption over the nodes in the network.

Item Type: Article
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Cao, YUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sun, ZUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wang, NUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Riaz, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cruickshank, HUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Liu, XUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 April 2015
Identification Number : https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2014.2331395
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 28 Mar 2017 11:00
Last Modified : 28 Mar 2017 11:00
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/810787

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