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Sex differences in the circadian regulation of sleep and waking cognition in humans

Santhi, N, Lazar, AS, McCabe, PJ, Lo, JC, Groeger, JA and Dijk, DJ (2016) Sex differences in the circadian regulation of sleep and waking cognition in humans Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA.

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Abstract

The sleep–wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity both contribute to brain function, but whether this contribution differs between men and women and how it varies across cognitive domains and subjective dimensions has not been established. We examined the circadian and sleep–wake-dependent regulation of cognition in 16 men and 18 women in a forced desynchrony protocol and quantified the separate contributions of circadian phase, prior sleep, and elapsed time awake on cognition and sleep. The largest circadian effects were observed for reported sleepiness, mood, and reported effort; the effects on working memory and temporal processing were smaller. Although these effects were seen in both men and women, there were quantitative differences. The amplitude of the circadian modulation was larger in women in 11 of 39 performance measures so that their performance was more impaired in the early morning hours. Principal components analysis of the performance measures yielded three factors, accuracy, effort, and speed, which reflect core performance characteristics in a range of cognitive tasks and therefore are likely to be important for everyday performance. The largest circadian modulation was observed for effort, whereas accuracy exhibited the largest sex difference in circadian modulation. The sex differences in the circadian modulation of cognition could not be explained by sex differences in the circadian amplitude of plasma melatonin and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity. These data establish the impact of circadian rhythmicity and sex on waking cognition and have implications for understanding the regulation of brain function, cognition, and affect in shift-work, jetlag, and aging.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : subj_Biosciences
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Santhi, NUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lazar, ASUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
McCabe, PJUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lo, JCUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Groeger, JAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dijk, DJUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 18 April 2016
Identification Number : 10.1073/pnas.1521637113
Copyright Disclaimer : Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.
Related URLs :
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 21 Apr 2016 10:12
Last Modified : 21 Apr 2016 10:12
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/810498

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